笑死

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公元前3世紀的古希臘斯多葛派哲學家克律西波斯的其中一個死亡說法指出他是笑死的。
由安瑟倫·費爾巴哈繪畫因笑而死的意大利作家彼得罗·阿雷蒂诺

笑死是一種罕見的死因,通常是由一陣大笑引起的心臟驟停或者窒息所致。自古希臘時代至現代均有笑死的案例紀錄。笑死的別稱「致命的歡鬧」(fatal hilarity)則是於1956年首次被使用。[1]

病理生理

大笑不止可以引致心臟驟停窒息[2]笑亦可以引致收縮乏力虛脫昏厥[3][4],並會導致創傷[5]因笑昏厥可以因下丘腦局灶性病變所致。[6]因笑昏厥亦會影響小腦[7]

笑可以是一種病症。橋腦延髓的梗塞均可以引致病者大笑,繼而死去。以這種方式死亡的病者可能被誤以為是因大笑而死。[8]

歷史上的笑死案例

歷史上曾經有少量笑死案例,上至公元前5世紀的古希臘,下至21世紀的台灣均有笑死的案例。於近代,笑死的人主要都是因笑引致的心臟衰竭或窒息而死。[9]

文艺作品情節

在《三国演义》故事中,司马昭在酒宴席间因为刘禅“乐不思蜀”言词反覆的对话哈哈大笑,而在1994年播映的电视剧《三国演义》,劇情被改编为司马昭在現場笑死了自己。

在小说《薛刚反唐》第九十六回“双孝王大开铁坟 樊梨花回山修道”中,128岁高龄的程咬金在祭奠被害的薛家家眷时,回顾自己一生的经历,感叹“真如做了一百二十八岁的春梦”,最后大笑而逝。

小说《说岳全传》第七十九回“施岑收服乌灵圣母 牛皋气死完颜兀术”中,牛皋生擒了金国统帅完颜兀术,并骑在兀术背上对其羞辱,兀术当场被气得吐血而死。牛皋哈哈大笑,最后“一口气不接,竟笑死于兀术身上”。

參見

參考文獻

  1. ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press (1993). The Compact Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ Reiss AL, Hoeft F, Tenforde AS, Chen W, Mobbs D, Mignot EJ. Greene, Ernest, 编. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy. PLoS ONE. 2008, 3 (5): e2225. PMC 2377337. PMID 18493621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002225. 
  3. ^ Nishida K, Hirota SK, Tokeshi J. Laugh syncope as a rare sub-type of the situational syncopes: a case report. J Med Case Reports. 2008, 2 (1): 197. PMC 2440757. PMID 18538031. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-197. 
  4. ^ Totah AR, Benbadis SR. Gelastic syncope mistaken for cataplexy. Sleep Med. January 2002, 3 (1): 77–8. PMID 14592259. doi:10.1016/S1389-9457(01)00113-7. 
  5. ^ Lo R, Cohen TJ. Laughter-induced syncope: no laughing matter. Am. J. Med. November 2007, 120 (11): e5. PMID 17976409. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.07.019. 
  6. ^ Cheung CS, Parrent AG, Burneo JG. Gelastic seizures: not always hypothalamic hamartoma. Epileptic Disord. December 2007, 9 (4): 453–8. PMID 18077234. doi:10.1684/epd.2007.0139. 
  7. ^ Famularo G, Corsi FM, Minisola G, De Simone C, Nicotra GC. Cerebellar tumour presenting with pathological laughter and gelastic syncope. Eur. J. Neurol. August 2007, 14 (8): 940–3. PMID 17662020. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2007.01784.x. 
  8. ^ Gondim, FA; Parks BJ, Cruz-Flores S et al. "Fou rire prodromique" as the presentation of pontine ischaemia secondary to vertebrobasilar stenosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. December 2001, 71 (6): 802–804. PMC 1737630. PMID 11723208. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.6.802. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 The Last Laugh's on Him. Urban Legends Reference Pages. 2007-01-19 [2007-06-23]. 
  10. ^ OVERVIEW Zeuxis. Oxford Index. [2013-05-11]. 
  11. ^ Laertius, Diogenes. Lives, Teachings and Sayings of the Eminent Philosophers, with an English translation by R.D. Hicks. Cambridge, Mass/London: Harvard UP/W. Heinemann Ltd. 1964-5. 
  12. ^ Paul N. Morris, Patronage and Piety Montserrat and the Royal House of Medieval Catalonia-Aragon, October 2000
  13. ^ Waterfield, Gordon, ed. First Footsteps in East Africa, (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1966) pg. 59 footnote.
  14. ^ Brown, Huntington. Rabelais in English Literature. Routledge. 1968: 126. ISBN 0-7146-2051-3. 
  15. ^ The History of Scottish Poetry. Edmonston & Douglas. 1861: 539. 
  16. ^ The Complete Goodies — Robert Ross, B T Batsford, London, 2000.
  17. ^ Man Dies Laughing at The Goodies, "Daily Mail", London (29 March 1975)
  18. ^ A Goodies Way to Go — Laughing, "Eastern Daily Press", Norwich (29 March 1975)
  19. ^ Slapstick! The Illustrated Story of Knockabout Comedy — Tony Staveacre, Angus & Robinson 1987
  20. ^ 9 People Who Died Laughing - Death - Book of Lists - Canongate Home

外部連結