筆跡學

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用來進行筆跡分析的英文手寫文字

筆跡學(英語:Graphology)是一種研究和分析筆跡英语Handwriting的學問,設法分析書寫者當時的心理狀態,或是其人格特質[1]。由於缺乏有效的科學證據[2][3],學界一般認為其是偽科學[4][5][6][7]大英百科全書則是將筆跡學視為在科學上受到質疑的實務[8]。筆跡學在法國仍經常在一些場合使用[3][9]

一個多世紀以來,筆跡學一直是有爭議的。支持者提出不少軼事證據,支持用筆跡學作性格分析,而多數實證研究未能顯示其支持者聲稱的有效性[10][11]。一般認為一個人的字跡不可能完全反映一個人的性格、工作態度和能力。在二十世紀中葉之前筆跡學在科學界有一定的支持,但近年的研究指以筆跡分析性格和工作績效並不準確[12][13][14][4]

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ Longman Dictionary of Psychology and Psychiatry, Longman Group United Kingdom, 1983 
  2. ^ Driver, Russell W.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Frink, Dwight D. Should We Write Off Graphology?. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 1996, 4 (2): 78–86. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.1996.tb00062.x. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Cohen, Roger. In France, It's How You Cross the t's. The New York Times. 19 October 1993. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Nevo, B Scientific Aspects Of Graphology: A Handbook Springfield, IL: Thomas: 1986
  5. ^ Barry Beyerstein Q&A. Ask the Scientists. Scientific American Frontiers. [2008-02-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-02-20).  "they simply interpret the way we form these various features on the page in much the same way ancient oracles interpreted the entrails of oxen or smoke in the air. i.e., it's a kind of magical divination or fortune telling where 'like begets like'".
  6. ^ BEYOND SCIENCE? Paper Personality, on season 8, episode 2. 美国科学前沿英语Scientific American Frontiers. 公共广播电视公司. Chedd-Angier Production Company. 1997-1998. (原始内容存档于2006). 
  7. ^ Dunning, Brian. Skeptoid #363: All About Graphology. Skeptoid. [2 September 2016]. 
  8. ^ Graphology. Encyclopædia Britannica. April 25, 2017. In general, the scientific basis for graphological interpretations of personality is questionable. 
  9. ^ Schofield, Hugh. A French love affair... with graphology. BBC News (Paris). 29 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Driver, Russel H.; M. Ronald Buckley and Dwight D. Frink, Should We Write Off Graphology?, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, April 1996, 4 (2): 78–86, doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.1996.tb00062.x. 
  11. ^ Furnham, Adrian; Barrie Gunter, Graphology and Personality: Another Failure to Validate Graphological Analysis., Personality and Individual Differences, 1987, 8 (3): 433–435, doi:10.1016/0191-8869(87)90045-6. 
  12. ^ Roy N. King and Derek J. Koehler, Illusory Correlations in Graphological Inference, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2000, 6 (4): 336–348, doi:10.1037/1076-898X.6.4.336. 
  13. ^ Fluckiger, Fritz A, Tripp, Clarence A & Weinberg, George H, A Review of xperimental Research in Graphology: 1933 - 1960, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1961, 12: 67–90, doi:10.2466/PMS.12.1.67-90. 
  14. ^ Lockowandte, Oskar, Lockowandte, Oskar Present status of the investigation of handwriting psychology as a diagnostic method, Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 1976, (6): 4–5.