精神依赖（英语：Psychological dependence），亦称心理依赖，指的是在停药、停止某项活动时因情感产生的依赖导致的戒断症状（如煩躁、失乐、焦慮等）。精神依赖有时候也被认为是成瘾症状的一部分。然而，有些能够让人产生依赖性的药物并不会让人成瘾，反过来也是如此。成瘾与精神依赖都可通过强化（一种操作制約）来缓和症状，但是这两种各自有不同的强化方式。 成瘾是一种对奖励刺激的寻求，可通过正向强化的方式减轻症状。精神依赖则通常需要反向强化的方式来解决，需要进行某些能够避免戒断症状的行为才能缓和。
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The defining feature of addiction is compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences. ...
Addictive drugs are both rewarding and reinforcing. ... Familiar pharmacologic terms such as tolerance, dependence, and sensitization are useful in describing some of the time-dependent processes that underlie addiction. ...
Dependence is defined as an adaptive state that develops in response to repeated drug administration, and is unmasked during withdrawal, which occurs when drug taking stops. Dependence from long-term drug use may have both a somatic component, manifested by physical symptoms, and an emotional–motivation component, manifested by dysphoria. While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in the diagnosis of addiction because they do not occur with other drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamine) and can occur with many drugs that are not abused (propranolol, clonidine).
The official diagnosis of drug addiction by the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (2000), which makes distinctions between drug use, abuse, and substance dependence, is flawed. First, diagnosis of drug use versus abuse can be arbitrary and reflect cultural norms, not medical phenomena. Second, the term substance dependence implies that dependence is the primary pharmacologic phenomenon underlying addiction, which is likely not true, as tolerance, sensitization, and learning and memory also play central roles. It is ironic and unfortunate that the Manual avoids use of the term addiction, which provides the best description of the clinical syndrome.