- 东北红胡子 一个世纪的匪患(图). 北京晚報.
- 红胡子，一个世纪的匪患. 北京晚報.
- Xiang, Lanxin. The Origins of the Boxer War: A Multinational Study. Routledge. 2003: 156. ISBN 0-7007-1563-0.
- Felix Patrikeeff, Harold Shukman. Railways and the Russo-Japanese War: transporting war. Taylor & Francis. 2007: 53 [18 March 2012]. ISBN 978-0-7146-5721-9.
Another hazard faced by the Russian soldiers when they reached Manchuria was that of the Hunghutze, nomadic bandits, many of whom had migrated to Manchuria from China proper, but had done so as outlaws and criminals.
- Louis Livingston Seaman. From Tokyo through Manchuria with the Japanese. PRINTED AT THE APPLETON PRESS, NEW YORK, U.S.A.: S. Appleton. 1904: 148 [18 March 2012].
CHAPTER IXLONDON SIDNEY APPLETON COPYRIGHT, 1904, BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY Original from the University of California Digitized Nov 21, 2007
WITH THE CHINESE BANDITS OF MANCHUBIA
While we were in Newchwang reports of raids by the bandit Hung-hutzes (commonly spelled Chun-chuzes in American newspapers), literally the "Red Beards," of Manchuria, although not one of them has a red beard, or any other kind of a beard, became so frequent that my companion, Captain Boyd, and myself determined to try to visit them. We hoped to see for ourselves something of the characteristics and methods of those 10,000 or more guerillas that on the west infest the border of the fighting zone in Manchuria, harrowing the rear and right flank of the Russian army, compelling it to quadruple its Cossack guards in that region in order to protect its supply-trains, as well as the refugees from Port Arthur in their efforts to reach Mukden by way of Hsin-Min-Tung.
- Fred Arthur McKenzie. The unveiled East. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN: E.P. Dutton and company. 1907: 114 [18 March 2012].
During the last stage of our journey through the Japanese lines we were guarded like valuable and brittle china. A Japanese frontier officer came down to meet us; we had infantry in front and behind us, and mounted gendarmes were sent ahead to explore each valley and wood. The officer explained to us, with much detail, that there had been many deaths from the Hung-hutzes there, and he was not going to permit us to be added to the roll. The houses showed how seriously the brigands are regarded here. Near each station was a fortified barracks, built by the Russians during their occupation, with high walls, ironshod gates, loop holes, and high inspection tower. The houses placed outside these walls had their sides carefully banked up, like earthworks. "Sometimes the robbers come and fire shots into our houses at night time," said the officer. "If we did not make thick earthen ramparts around, we would be killed."NEW YORK E. P. DUTTON AND COMPANY 31 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET 1907 Original from Harvard University Digitized Mar 26, 2009