紅鬍子 (中國東北)

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奉天会战中的紅鬍子

紅鬍子又稱東北紅鬍子,是清朝咸豐中華人民共和國成立期間[1]活躍在中国东北西伯利亚东南部以及俄羅斯遠東地區强盗土匪

名稱[编辑]

紅鬍子多為漢人,本身並不能長出紅色鬍鬚。關於紅鬍子名稱來源,俄國學者穆羅夫認為,這些土匪喜歡用紅色繩穗裝飾武器,這些人在用槍射擊時,從遠處眺望好似長著紅色鬍鬚。美國比林斯利教授認為,土匪為掩人耳目,使用京劇中紅色的髯口作為偽裝[1]

歷史[编辑]

1644至1667年间,不少關內百姓移民满洲,同時還有内地百姓因犯罪被流放至满洲。1878年後,清朝取消满洲移民禁令,移民數量陡增。這些人構成了紅鬍子的人口基數。後來數十年間紅鬍子又吸引了一些朝鮮人、日本人以及流竄至東北的俄國戰俘以及一些俄國哥薩克參與。而同期由於清朝爆發太平天国之乱,調集一部分關外軍隊前往鎮壓,使得關外兵力空虛。在此消彼長之下紅鬍子勢力開始坐大,並在丹东附近建立大本营,一度自稱“夹皮沟红胡子共和国”[1],甚至一部分紅鬍子前往俄國作案[2]

19世纪末,俄罗斯修建東清鐵路時,時常遭到紅鬍子襲擊[3]

義和團運動爆發時,紅鬍子也參與其中。庚子俄難俄國入侵滿洲英语Russian invasion of Manchuria時,紅鬍子抵抗俄軍入侵[4]

1902年,數百红胡子進攻松花江右岸新城,結果被百余名俄国中东路卫兵擊敗,红胡子被击毙百余人,被俘获二十余人[1]

1906年7月,红胡子在哈尔滨绑架一位中国商人,勒索贖金赎金20万卢布。9月,红胡子抢劫哈尔滨一家银行以及袭击中东路列车。1907年5月,紅鬍子再度襲擊中东路边境车站[1]。1906年10月3日,两名红胡子在海参崴监狱以武裝搶劫的罪名被绞死,他们是第一批被俄国人处死的红胡子[2]

1907年,俄国警卫部队在哈尔滨與红胡子交火[1]

1908年6月,50多名红胡子袭击了一个俄罗斯村庄。9月,红胡子袭击上阿穆尔公司押镖的黄金运输队。同月,150多人红胡子包围恰辛纳村,搶走五百普特的面粉和衣服鞋帽[2]。 

紅鬍子曾經受到張作霖指揮[5]。後來紅鬍子又襲擊過日軍[6]

苏联红军东北民主联军打击下,活躍在兩國境内的红胡子逐漸消亡[2]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 东北红胡子 一个世纪的匪患(图). 北京晚報. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 红胡子,一个世纪的匪患. 北京晚報. 
  3. ^ Xiang, Lanxin. The Origins of the Boxer War: A Multinational Study. Routledge. 2003: 156. ISBN 0-7007-1563-0. 
  4. ^ Felix Patrikeeff, Harold Shukman. Railways and the Russo-Japanese War: transporting war. Taylor & Francis. 2007: 53 [18 March 2012]. ISBN 978-0-7146-5721-9. Another hazard faced by the Russian soldiers when they reached Manchuria was that of the Hunghutze, nomadic bandits, many of whom had migrated to Manchuria from China proper, but had done so as outlaws and criminals. 
  5. ^ Louis Livingston Seaman. From Tokyo through Manchuria with the Japanese. PRINTED AT THE APPLETON PRESS, NEW YORK, U.S.A.: S. Appleton. 1904: 148 [18 March 2012]. CHAPTER IX
    WITH THE CHINESE BANDITS OF MANCHUBIA
    While we were in Newchwang reports of raids by the bandit Hung-hutzes (commonly spelled Chun-chuzes in American newspapers), literally the "Red Beards," of Manchuria, although not one of them has a red beard, or any other kind of a beard, became so frequent that my companion, Captain Boyd, and myself determined to try to visit them. We hoped to see for ourselves something of the characteristics and methods of those 10,000 or more guerillas that on the west infest the border of the fighting zone in Manchuria, harrowing the rear and right flank of the Russian army, compelling it to quadruple its Cossack guards in that region in order to protect its supply-trains, as well as the refugees from Port Arthur in their efforts to reach Mukden by way of Hsin-Min-Tung.
     LONDON SIDNEY APPLETON COPYRIGHT, 1904, BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY Original from the University of California Digitized Nov 21, 2007
  6. ^ Fred Arthur McKenzie. The unveiled East. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN: E.P. Dutton and company. 1907: 114 [18 March 2012]. During the last stage of our journey through the Japanese lines we were guarded like valuable and brittle china. A Japanese frontier officer came down to meet us; we had infantry in front and behind us, and mounted gendarmes were sent ahead to explore each valley and wood. The officer explained to us, with much detail, that there had been many deaths from the Hung-hutzes there, and he was not going to permit us to be added to the roll. The houses showed how seriously the brigands are regarded here. Near each station was a fortified barracks, built by the Russians during their occupation, with high walls, ironshod gates, loop holes, and high inspection tower. The houses placed outside these walls had their sides carefully banked up, like earthworks. "Sometimes the robbers come and fire shots into our houses at night time," said the officer. "If we did not make thick earthen ramparts around, we would be killed." NEW YORK E. P. DUTTON AND COMPANY 31 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET 1907 Original from Harvard University Digitized Mar 26, 2009