納圖夫文化

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該文化的擴散範圍概略地圖;該文化從約旦河和死海兩岸擴散到幼發拉底河岸中部地區。

納圖夫Natufian,發音/nəˈtfiən/[1]文化是一個在黎凡特地區的舊石器時代晚期考古學文化,該文化約發生於距今約 15,000 至 11,500 年前。[2] 這種文化很不尋常,因為它甚至在農業被引入前,就已支撐起過著定居或半定居生活的人口。

Natufian 社群可能是其所在地區最初的新石器時代定居點的建造者的祖先。在位於今敘利亞上幼發拉底河谷的史前文化考古遺址 Tell Abu Hureyra,證據顯示該文化有意種植穀物,特別是黑麥[3] 麵包製作證據在約旦東北部沙漠裡約有 14,500 年歷史的 Shubayqa 1 號遺址中被發現。[4] 此外,在以色列海法附近迦密山的 Raqefet 洞穴中發現了古老的啤酒製造證據,其發生時間可追溯到約 13,000 年前。[5][6]

同時,這個文化的人群會利用野生穀物並獵殺包括瞪羚在內的動物。[7] 考古遺傳學已揭示後期(新石器時代到青銅器時代)黎凡特人的起源,主要來自該文化之人群,還有大量來自安納托利亞銅石並用時代的混合產物。[8]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Natufian. 牛津英語詞典 (第三版). 牛津大學出版社. 2005-09 (英语). 
  2. ^ Grosman, Leore. The Natufian Chronological Scheme – New Insights and their Implications. Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Valla, François R. (编). Natufian Foragers in the Levant: Terminal Pleistocene Social Changes in Western Asia 1. New York: Berghahn Books. 2013: 622–627 [2021-11-14]. ISBN 978-1-879621-45-9. JSTOR j.ctv8bt33h. (原始内容存档于2022-01-30) –通过JSTOR. 
  3. ^ Moore, Andrew M. T.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Legge, Anthony J., Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-19-510806-4 
  4. ^ Prehistoric bake-off: Scientists discover oldest evidence of bread. BBC. 17 July 2018 [17 July 2018]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-19). 
  5. ^ 'World's oldest brewery' found in cave in Israel, say researchers. British Broadcasting Corporation. 15 September 2018 [15 September 2018]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-15). 
  6. ^ '13,000-year-old brewery discovered in Israel, the oldest in the world. The Times of Israel. 12 September 2018 [16 September 2018]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-16). 
  7. ^ Kottak, Conrad P., Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Anthropology, Boston: McGraw-Hill: 155–156, 2005, ISBN 978-0-07-289028-0 
  8. ^ Lazaridis, Iosif; Nadel, Dani; Rollefson, Gary; Merrett, Deborah C.; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Gamarra, Beatriz; Sirak, Kendra; Connell, Sarah; Stewardson, Kristin; Harney, Eadaoin; Fu, Qiaomei; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Jones, Eppie R.; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Lengyel, György; Bocquentin, Fanny; Gasparian, Boris; Monge, Janet M.; Gregg, Michael; Eshed, Vered; Mizrahi, Ahuva-Sivan; Meiklejohn, Christopher; Gerritsen, Fokke; Bejenaru, Luminita; Blüher, Matthias; Campbell, Archie; Cavalleri, Gianpiero; Comas, David; Froguel, Philippe; Gilbert, Edmund; Kerr, Shona M.; Kovacs, Peter; Krause, Johannes; McGettigan, Darren; Merrigan, Michael; Merriwether, D. Andrew; O'Reilly, Seamus; Richards, Martin B.; Semino, Ornella; Shamoon-Pour, Michel; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Torroni, Antonio; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loic; Hovhannisyan, Nelli A.; Patterson, Nick; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East (PDF). Nature. 2016, 536 (7617): 419–424 [2021-11-14]. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..419L. PMC 5003663可免费查阅. PMID 27459054. doi:10.1038/nature19310. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-02-12).  Fig. 4. "Our data document continuity across the transition between hunter– gatherers and farmers, separately in the southern Levant and in the southern Caucasus–Iran highlands. The qualitative evidence for this is that PCA, ADMIXTURE, and outgroup f3 analysis cluster Levantine hunter–gatherers (Natufians) with Levantine farmers, and Iranian and CHG with Iranian farmers (Fig. 1b and Extended Data Figs 1, 3). We confirm this in the Levant by showing that its early farmers share significantly more alleles with Natufians than with the early farmers of Iran" Epipaleolithic Natufians were substantially derived from the Basal Eurasian lineage. "We used qpAdm (ref. 7) to estimate Basal Eurasian ancestry in each Test population. We obtained the highest estimates in the earliest populations from both Iran (66±13% in the likely Mesolithic sample, 48±6% in Neolithic samples), and the Levant (44±8% in Epipalaeolithic Natufians) (Fig. 2), showing that Basal Eurasian ancestry was widespread across the ancient Near East. [...] The idea of Natufians as a vector for the movement of Basal Eurasian ancestry into the Near East is also not supported by our data, as the Basal Eurasian ancestry in the Natufians (44±8%) is consistent with stemming from the same population as that in the Neolithic and Mesolithic populations of Iran, and is not greater than in those populations (Supplementary Information, section 4). Further insight into the origins and legacy of the Natufians could come from comparison to Natufians from additional sites, and to ancient DNA from North Africa."