紙莎草

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紙莎草
Kew.gardens.papyrus.plant.arp.jpg
紙莎草
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支 单子叶植物 Monocots
演化支 鸭跖草类植物 Commelinids
目: 禾本目 Poales
科: 莎草科 Cyperaceae
属: 莎草属 Cyperus
种: 紙莎草 C. papyrus
二名法
Cyperus papyrus
Linn.

紙莎草[註 1]学名Cyperus papyrus,英文名:papyrus, papyrus sedge),又稱紙草(英語:Paper reed)、埃及莎草埃及紙草蒲草(Bulrush)、埃及蒲草尼羅草(Nile grass)、印度叢草(Indian matting plant)。屬於莎草科莎草屬。是北非洲原產的一種多年生草本植物

生長型態[编辑]

紙莎草是一種高而堅韌的挺水植物,約可長到4至5公尺高。它綠色、長稈狀的莖橫切面為三角形,從粗厚的地下莖中長出。每一條莖的頂端都會長出一簇濃密的、放射狀(像煙火一般)的葉。葉子細長、通常呈亮綠色,長度約10至30公分。當植物還年幼的時候,這簇葉子的生長型態就像雞毛撢一樣。花是綠褐色,生長在葉簇的末端。果實呈褐色。地下莖在剛長出時會被一層紅褐色的紙質層覆蓋,這層三角形的鱗狀層也覆蓋了莖的基部。

紙莎草生長在熱帶至亞熱帶的環境中,不論是潮濕的森林或乾燥的沙漠,只要全年均溫在20到30℃且土壤pH值在6.0-8.5就可以生長。紙莎草的花在暮夏盛開,並且傾向於在全日照到半陰涼的環境開花。像許多典型的熱帶植物一樣,紙莎草對很敏感。

紙莎草的分布遍及在沼澤、淺水湖和溪畔等非洲的潮濕部分,但在尼羅河三角洲已逐漸變得稀少。在較深的水中,紙莎草是構成植被的主要植物(被稱為sudd)。現今它的野生分布存在於剛果馬達加斯加島烏干達衣索匹亞西西里島

紙莎草羽毛狀的花是許多社會性鳥類築巢的地點。像許多莎草科植物一樣,它是風媒花,且果實由流水帶走。

今天,紙莎草被培育、改良為裝飾性的植物。其中C. nanus(矮紙莎草)、C. profiler兩個品種只會長到約1公尺高。

用途[编辑]

古埃及人使用紙莎草的用途有很多。其中,最有名的應該是莎草纸的製作。在希臘文英文中,「莎草紙」這個字的語源被許多人認為是來自於古埃及语,但這是谬传。紙莎草現在被廣泛的運用於製作裝飾品,例如莎草紙畫。在古代,紙莎草在尼羅河三角洲有著相當廣泛的分布,然而现在它在尼羅河三角洲的原生種群却瀕臨絕滅。在泰奧弗拉斯托斯的《植物史》(Historia Plantarum,卷十)一書中寫到紙莎草在敘利亞也有分布。而根據老普林尼的《博物志》一書,紙莎草是尼羅河及幼發拉底河流域的原生植物

此外,古埃及人利用多種莎草科的植物的花來製作敬神的花圈。而嫩枝則被當作食物。它多纖維的地下莖則用來製作碗等多種器具,有時也當作燃料。而莖則用來編製葦舟(在埃及第四王朝的浮雕中,描繪了壯年男子採集莎草製作葦舟的情形),類似的船在蘇丹也能發現。

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 「莎」,拼音suō注音ㄙㄨㄛ粤拼so1疏,音同「梭」

延伸閲讀[编辑]

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  • Chapman, L.J., C.A. Chapman, P.J. Schofield, J.P. Olowo, L. Kaufman, O. Seehausen and R. Ogutu-Ohwayo. 2003. Fish faunal resurgence in Lake Nabugabo, East Africa. Conservation Biology 17: 500-511.
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  • Harper, D.M., K.M. Mavuti and S. M. Muchiri. 1990: Ecology and management of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, in relation to climatic change, alien species introductions and agricultural development. Environmental Conservation 17: 328–336.
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  • Maclean, I.M.D., M. Hassall, M. R. Boar and I. Lake. 2006. Effects of disturbance and habitat loss on papyrus-dwelling passerines. Biological Conservation., 131: 349-358.
  • Maclean, I.M.D., M. Hassall, R. Boar, R. and O. Nasirwa. 2003a. Effects of habitat degradation on avian guilds in East African papyrus Cyperus papyrus L. swamps. Bird Conservation International, 13: 283-297.
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  • Maclean, I.M.D., R. Tinch, M. Hassall and R.R. Boar. 2003c. Towards optimal use of tropical wetlands: an economic evaluation of goods derived from papyrus swamps in southwest Uganda. Environmental Change and Management Working Paper No. 2003-10, Centre for Social and Economic Research into the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
  • Messenger Dally. 1908 How papyrus defeated South Sydney and assisted in making Eastern Suburbs great
  • Muthuri, F. M., M. B. Jones, and S.K. Imbamba. 1989. Primary productivity of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in a tropical swamp - Lake Naivasha, Kenya, Biomass, 18: 1 - 14.
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參見[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]