紧急状态 (印度)

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1975年6月25日,印度总理英迪拉·甘地英迪拉·甘地让印度总统法赫鲁丁·阿里·艾哈迈德宣布国家紧急状态

印度紧急状态(the Emergency)是指印度在1975年至1977年间,持续21个月的紧急状态。时任印度总理英迪拉·甘地决定在全国范围内实施紧急状态,由总统法赫鲁丁·阿里·艾哈迈德因“内乱”(internal disturbance)而根据《印度宪法》第352条正式发布,后被内阁及议会追认[1][2]。紧急状态从1975年6月25日开始生效,直到1977年3月21日撤销。

紧急状态时期,印度总理被赋予极大权力,得暂停选举及限制公民自由。紧急状态期间,英迪拉·甘地的大多数政治反对者被长期监禁,新闻界受到审查。紧急状态期间还发生了其他侵犯人权的事件,包括由总理的儿子桑贾伊·甘地带头发起的大规模强迫绝育运动[3][4][5][6]。紧急状态是印度独立后历史上最具争议的时期之一。

参看[编辑]

  • Baroda dynamite case

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Interview with Indira Gandhi. Interview relecast through India times. TV Eye. [14 June 2018]. 
  2. ^ recallign the emergency. Indian Express. 29 June 2015 [14 June 2018]. 
  3. ^ Vinay Lal. Indira Gandhi. [1 August 2013]. Sanjay Gandhi, started to run the country as though it were his fiefdom and earned the fierce hatred of many whom his policies had victimised. He ordered the removal of slum dwellings, and in an attempt to curb India's growing population, initiated a highly resented programme of forced sterilisation. 
  4. ^ Subodh Ghildiyal. Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency 'excesses'. 29 December 2010 [1 August 2013]. Sanjay Gandhi's rash promotion of sterilization and forcible clearance of slums ... sparked popular anger 
  5. ^ Kumkum Chadha. Sanjay's men and women. 4 January 2011 [1 August 2013]. The Congress, on the other hand, charges Sanjay Gandhi of "over-enthusiasm" in dealing with certain programmes and I quote yet again: "Unfortunately, in certain spheres, over-enthusiasm led to compulsion in the enforcement of certain programmes like compulsory sterilisation and clearance of slums. Sanjay Gandhi had by then emerged as a leader of great significance.". 
  6. ^ Sanjay Gandhi worked in an authoritarian manner: Congress book. 28 December 2010 [1 August 2013]. 

来源[编辑]

  • Atul Kohli. Democracy and Discontent: India's Growing Crisis of Governability. Cambridge University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-521-39161-X.
  • Atul Kohli (ed.). The Success of India's Democracy. Cambridge University Press. 2001 [2004]. ISBN 81-7596-107-4.
  • Ayesha Jalal. Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: a Comparative and Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. 1995 [1996]. ISBN 81-85618-75-5
  • B. G. Verghese. Warrior of the Fourth Estate: Ramnath Goenka of the Express. Viking, Penguin India. 2005. ISBN 978-0-67005-842-6.
  • Bipan Chandra et al. India Since Independence. Penguin India. 2008 [2011 digital edition]. e-ISBN 978-81-8475-053-9.
  • Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. LexisNexis Butterworths. 1960 [20th edition, 2011 reprint]. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9.
  • Inder Malhotra. Indira Gandhi: A Personal and Political Biography. Hodder and Stoughton. 1989. ISBN 0-340-40540-6.
  • Mary C. Carras. Indira Gandhi: In the Crucible of Leadership. Jaico Publishing House. 1979 [1980].
  • Partha Chatterjee. Lineages of Political Society. Permanent Black. 2011. ISBN 81-7824-317-2.
  • Partha Chatterjee. Empire and Nation: Essential Writings, 1985–2005. Permanent Black. 2010. ISBN 81-7824-267-2.
  • Ramachandra Guha. India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. HarperCollins. 2008. ISBN 978-0-330-50554-3.
  • S. S. Gill. The Dynasty: A Political Biography of the Premier Ruling Family of Modern India. HarperCollins. 1996. ISBN 81-7223-245-4.
  • Subhash C. Kashyap. Indian Constitution: Conflicts and Controversies. Vitasta Publishing. 2010. ISBN 978-81-89766-41-2.
  • T. V. Sathyamurthy. State and Nation in the Context of Social Change. Oxford University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-19-563136-6.

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Aaron S. Klieman. "Indira's India: Democracy and Crisis Government", Political Science Quarterly (1981) 96#2 pp. 241–259 in JSTOR
  • Kuldip Nayar. The Judgement: Inside Story of the Emergency in India. 1977. Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 0-7069-0557-1.
  • P. N. Dhar. Indira Gandhi, the "Emergency", and Indian Democracy (2000), 424pp
  • Ramashray Roy and D. L. Sheth. "The 1977 Lok Sabha Election Outcome: The Salience of Changing Voter Alignments Since 1969," Political Science Review (1978), Vol. 17 Issue 3/4, pp. 51–63
  • Shourie, Arun (1984). Mrs Gandhi's second reign. New Delhi: Vikas.
  • Shourie, Arun (1978). Symptoms of fascism. New Delhi: Vikas.

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