松果菊

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松果菊
Echinacea purpurea, Jardín Botánico, Múnich, Alemania, 2013-09-08, DD 01.jpg
慕尼黑植物园中的松果菊
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
演化支 菊类植物 Asterids
目: 菊目 Asterales
科: 菊科 Asteraceae
属: 松果菊属 Echinacea
种: 松果菊 E. purpurea
二名法
Echinacea purpurea
(L.) Moench
異名[1]
  • Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britton
  • Echinacea intermedia Lindl. ex Paxton
  • Echinacea speciosa (Wender.) Paxton
  • Helichroa purpurea (L.) Raf.
  • Rudbeckia purpurea L.

松果菊(学名:Echinacea purpurea),又名紫锥菊紫锥花,是松果菊属下的一种多年生草本植物[2],原产于北美洲东部[3][4],是美国和加拿大安大略省常见的野外植物之一。[5][6]

形态[编辑]

松果菊可以长到120厘米(47英寸)高,生长在开阔的林地、草原甚至荒漠地带,对土壤干湿及酸碱度没有太高的要求,从春天到夏末都可能开花,具体时间取决于当地气候。野生的松果菊通常开紫红色花[7],其种加词的意思就是“紫色的”[8]

用途[编辑]

观赏[编辑]

松果菊花海

松果菊是一种较为常见的观赏植物,有许多个变种,其中“Ruby Giant”[9]和“Elbrook”[10]曾获得皇家园艺学会“优秀园艺奖”(Award of Garden Merit)。[11]

药用[编辑]

美国原住民使用松果菊来治疗普通外伤、烧伤以及蚊虫咬伤,其根捣碎还可以用来当牙膏或治疗喉咙痛,内服可治咳嗽、胃痛、蛇咬伤。[12]

现在在美国和欧洲松果菊仍然是常见药用植物之一,被普遍认为具有增强免疫力的作用[2][13]。但一些研究显示松果菊似乎并没有太大的医疗作用[14][15][16][17],而且可能会使患者产生过敏反应,导致出疹子、气喘,甚至出现生命危险。[18]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ The Plant List, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Midgley, Jan W. Southeastern Wildflowers: Your complete guide to plant communities, identification, and traditional uses. Crane Hill Publishers. 1999. ISBN 1-57587-106-8. 
  3. ^ Echinacea purpurea - (L.)Moench.. Plants For A Future. June 2004 [2007-06-06]. 
  4. ^ Bruce Zimmerman. Echinacea: Not always a purple coneflower.. [2018-10-20]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-04). 
  5. ^ Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (eastern purple coneflower). PLANTS Profile. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. [2007-06-07]. 
  6. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  7. ^ Flora of North America, Eastern purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (Linnaeus) Moench, Methodus. 591. 1794.
  8. ^ Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 149, 321
  9. ^ RHS Plant Selector - Echinacea purpurea 'Ruby Giant'. [16 July 2013]. 
  10. ^ RHS Plantfinder - Echinacea ‘Elbrook’. [14 February 2018]. 
  11. ^ AGM Plants - Ornamental (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society: 33. July 2017 [6 February 2018]. 
  12. ^ Wang L, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, Blazevic T, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Kopp B, Bauer R, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Atanasov AG. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2014, 92 (1): 73–89. PMC 4212005. PMID 25083916. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. 
  13. ^ 挥着“翅膀”的“松果”——松果菊. 中国科学院转载武汉植物园. 2013-07-23. 
  14. ^ Hart A, Dey P. Echinacea for prevention of the common cold: an illustrative overview of how information from different systematic reviews is summarised on the internet. Preventive Medicine. 2009, 49 (2–3): 78–82. PMID 19389422. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.04.006. 
  15. ^ Sachin A Shah; Stephen Sander; C Michael White; Mike Rinaldi; Craig I Coleman. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. July 2007, 7 (7): 473–480. ISSN 1473-3099. PMID 17597571. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70160-3. 
  16. ^ Woelkart K, Linde K, Bauer R. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Planta Medica. May 2008, 74 (6): 633–7. PMC 4068831. PMID 18186015. doi:10.1055/s-2007-993766. 
  17. ^ Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review). 2014, 2: CD000530. PMC 4068831. PMID 24554461. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3. 
  18. ^ Echinacea. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 

扩展阅读[编辑]

  • Abouelella A, Shahein YE, Tawfik SS, Zahran AM. Phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice. J. Vet. Sci. 2007, 8 (4): 341–351. doi:10.4142/jvs.2007.8.4.341. 
  • Blanchan, Neltje. Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 2005. 
  • Koen FE. The Influence of Echinacea Purpurea On The Hypophyseal-Adrenal System;. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 1953, 3: 133–137. 

外部连接[编辑]