红色走廊

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纳萨尔派活动地区,2007年(左)和 2013年(右)。

红色走廊(英語:Red Corridor)是印度东部、中部和南部的部分地区,正经历着纳萨尔毛派叛乱[1] 纳萨尔派团体主要部分是印度共产党(毛主义)[2] 根据《印度非法活动(预防)法》(1967年),所有形式的纳萨尔组织都已被宣布为恐怖组织。[3][4][5][6]

红色走廊是现代印度最大的文盲、贫困和人口过剩地区,横跨安得拉邦比哈尔邦恰蒂斯加尔邦贾坎德邦中央邦马哈拉施特拉邦奥里萨邦特伦甘纳邦西孟加拉邦北方邦东部。[7][8][9] 据印度内政部统计,2016年这10个邦共发生1048起左翼极端主义暴力事件。[10]

经济状况[编辑]

红色走廊是印度最贫穷的地区之一。贾坎德邦、奥里萨邦、恰蒂斯加尔邦和特伦甘纳邦(前身为安得拉邦的一部分)等地要么贫穷,要么经济上存在严重不平等,或者两者兼而有之。[11][12]

该地区的一个关键特征是非多元化经济,完全是基于第一产业。农业(有时以矿业或林业为辅)是经济的中流砥柱,经常无法支持人口的快速增长。[13][14][15] 该地区拥有丰富的自然资源,包括矿产、林业和潜在的水力发电能力。例如,奥里萨邦“拥有印度60%的铝土矿储量、25%的煤炭、28%的铁矿石、92%的镍和28%的锰矿储量。”[16]

社会状况[编辑]

红色走廊所包含的地区倾向于分层社会,伴随着种姓和封建区隔。该地区的大部分地区都有土生土长的部落人口(被称为阿迪瓦西),包括桑塔人冈德人。比哈尔邦和贾坎德邦有种姓和部落分裂,暴力与这些社会团体之间的摩擦有关。[17][18][19] 安得拉邦的特伦甘纳地区同样具有严格的社会等级安排,因而具有很深的种姓隔离。[20][21] 恰蒂斯加尔邦和奥里萨邦都有显著贫困的部落人口。[22][23][24]

受影响地区[编辑]

据印度政府称,截至2011年7月,十个邦的83个县(这个数字包括新增的20个县)受左翼极端主义的影响,[25][26] 2009年这个数字是180个县。[27] 截至2016年2月12日,受影响地区为10个邦的106个县。[28] 截至2017年12月,9个邦的105个县受左翼极端主义影响,[25][26]

印度的邦和中央直辖区 县数 受影响县数 受影响县[29]
贾坎德邦 24 18 哈扎里巴縣, 洛哈達伽縣, 帕拉木县, 查特拉縣, 加瓦县, 蘭契縣, 根拉縣, 辛德伽縣, 拉特哈爾縣, 基里迪縣, 科達馬縣, 博卡羅縣, 但巴德縣, 東新奔縣, 西新奔縣, 薩萊克拉卡爾薩旺縣, 昆蒂縣, 拉姆格爾縣
比哈尔邦 38 11 奧蘭加巴德縣, 加雅縣, 羅塔斯縣, Bhojpur, 开姆尔县, 東查姆帕蘭縣, 西查姆帕蘭縣, 錫塔馬里縣, 蒙吉爾縣, 納瓦達縣, 扎穆伊縣
恰蒂斯加尔邦 27 10 巴斯塔县, 比賈布爾縣 (恰蒂斯加爾邦), 丹德瓦達縣, 坎克爾縣, 拉吉南德岡縣, 蘇古賈縣, 傑什布爾縣, 科里亚县, 納拉延普爾縣, 苏格马县
奥里萨邦 30 9 马尔康格伊里, Ganjam, Koraput, Gajapati, Rayagada, Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Deogarh, Kandhamal
安得拉邦 13 8 Guntur, Prakasam, Anantapur, Kurnool, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram
特伦甘纳邦 10 8 Warangal, Karimnagar, Adilabad, Khammam, Medak, Nalgonda, Mahbubnagar, Nizamabad
马哈拉施特拉邦 36 3 Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Gondia
北方邦 75 3 Sonbhadra, Mirzapur, Chandauli
西孟加拉邦 19 3 Bankura, West Midnapore, Purulia
中央邦 50 1 Balaghat
Total 319 74

奥里萨之分[编辑]

红色走廊几乎从印度与尼泊尔的边界连接到泰米尔纳德邦的北部边界。然而,奥里萨邦的沿海地区和中心地区存在显著差异,纳萨尔派活动较少,识字率和经济多样化指数较高。[30][31] 然而,属于红色走廊的奥里萨邦非沿海地区的指标明显较低,整个地区的识字率远低于全国平均水平。[32][33]

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Rahul Pandita. Hello Bastar: The Untold Story Of India’s Maoist Movement. Tranquebar Press (2011). ISBN 978-93-8065834-6.Chapter VI. p. 111
  2. ^ Agarwal, Ajay. Revelations from the red corridor. [27 April 2012]. (原始内容存档于20 January 2013). 
  3. ^ ::Ministry of Home Affairs:: 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期10 May 2012.
  4. ^ Maoist Communist Centre - Left Wing Extremism, India, South Asia Terrorism Portal. [1 April 2015]. 
  5. ^ People's War Group - Left Wing Extremism, India, South Asia Terrorism Portal. [1 April 2015]. 
  6. ^ Sukanya Banerjee, "Mercury Rising: India’s Looming Red Corridor", Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2008.
  7. ^ Armed revolt in the Red Corridor. Mondiaal Nieuws, Belgium. 2008-06-25 [2008-10-17]. 
  8. ^ Women take up guns in India's red corridor. The Asian Pacific Post. 2008-06-09 [2008-10-17]. (原始内容存档于22 June 2006). 
  9. ^ Rising Maoists Insurgency in India. Global Politician. 2007-05-13 [2008-10-17]. (原始内容存档于2010-04-11). 
  10. ^ Bihar ranks third among 10 states hit by Maoist violence. 
  11. ^ Magnus Öberg, Kaare Strøm, "Resources, Governance and Civil Conflict", Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0-415-41671-X. Snippet: ... the general consensus is that the insurgency was started to address various economic and social injustices related to highly skewed distributions of cropland ...
  12. ^ Debal K. SinghaRoy, "Peasant Movements in Post-colonial India: Dynamics of Mobilization and Identity", Sage Publications, 2004, ISBN 0-7619-9826-8.
  13. ^ Fernando Franco, "Pain and Awakening: The Dynamics of Dalit Identity in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh", Indian Social Institute, 2002, ISBN 81-87218-46-0. ... Land deprivation is the major cause of mass poverty especially in view of the low level of economic diversification in rural areas. Amongst all major states, Bihar has the second highest proportion (55 per cent) of landless or quasi-landless households in the rural population ...
  14. ^ Dietmar Rothermund, "An Economic History of India: From Pre-colonial Times to 1991", Routledge, 1993, ISBN 0-415-08871-2. Snippet: ... Eastern India has been bypassed by the 'Green revolution' to a great extent ... Instead of urbanization, we can find rural areas with an amazing degree of overpopulation ...
  15. ^ Rabindra Nath Pati, National Organization for Family and Population Welfare, "Population, Family, and Culture", Ashish Publishing House, 1987, ISBN 81-7024-151-0.
  16. ^ Forbes India: Orissa's war over minerals. IBNLive. [1 April 2015]. 
  17. ^ Bihar: Caste, Politics & the Cycle of Strife. Mammen Matthew, SATP. [2008-10-19]. 
  18. ^ Bihar caste clashes kill six. BBC. 2002-10-26 [2008-10-19]. 
  19. ^ Smita Narula, "Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's untouchables", Human Rights Watch, 1999, ISBN 1-56432-228-9.
  20. ^ A. Satyanarayana, "Land, Caste and Dominance in Telangana", Centre for Contemporary Studies, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, 1993.
  21. ^ Tulja Ram Singh, "The Madiga: A Study in Social Structure and Change", Ethnographic & Folk Culture Society, 1969.
  22. ^ Ajit K. Danda, "Chhattisgarh: An Area Study", Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, 1977.
  23. ^ Gyanendra Pandey, "Routine Violence: Nations, Fragments, Histories", Permanent Black, 2006, ISBN 81-7824-161-7.
  24. ^ Oliver Springate-Baginski and Piers M. Blaikie, "Forests, People and Power: The Political Ecology of Reform in South Asia", Earthscan, 2007, ISBN 1-84407-347-5.
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 Centre to declare more districts Naxal-hit. [1 April 2015]. 
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 The Union Government of India to Bring 20 More Districts in the Naxal-hit states. [1 April 2015]. (原始内容存档于2011-09-10). 
  27. ^ Press Information Bureau. [1 April 2015]. 
  28. ^ LWE affected districts. pib.nic.in. [2017-02-14]. 
  29. ^ 83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme. IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11 [2015-09-17]. 
  30. ^ B. B. Jena and Jaya Krishna Baral, "Government and Politics in Odisha", Print House (India), 1988. Snippet:... The literacy rate of the four coastal districts is much higher than that of other districts ...
  31. ^ Sanjoy Chakravorty and Somik V. Lall, "Made in India: The Economic Geography and Political Economy of Industrialization", Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-568672-1. Snippet:... and Punjab are considered advanced regions, while Bihar and Odisha are considered lagging regions. With the district level data used here, it is possible to create new data driven definitions of advanced and lagging regions that are distinct from politically defined regional ...
  32. ^ National Family Health Survey. International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra. [2008-10-18]. (原始内容存档于2001-03-01). 
  33. ^ Sevanti Ninan, "Headlines from the Heartland: Reinventing the Hindi Public Sphere", Sage Publishers, 2007, ISBN 0-7619-3580-0. Snippet:... This one state (Madhya Pradesh) alone, taken together with Chhattisgarh, accounted for 17.9 percent of the total decadal decrease in illiteracy in India in the 1990s ...