经济部门

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
该图说明了一个国家的经济中不同部门所占的比重。社会经济发展水平较高的国家的经济中,第一产业和第二产业部门比例通常较小,而第三产业部门的重要性更高。欠发达国家则表现出相反的格局。
富拉斯蒂埃(Fourastié)提出的三部门就业人口变化趋势。
克拉克的部门模型

经济部门经济成分通常可按如下方法分为三个部门[1]

  • 第一产业:涉及原料和生产,例如玉米、煤炭、木材和铁矿开采。(煤矿工人、农民或渔民是第一产业工人。)
  • 第二產業:涉及将原材料或中间材料转变为商品,例如将钢铁制造成汽车,或将纺织品制造成服装。(建筑工人和裁缝属于第二产业工人。)
  • 第三产业:涉及向消费者和企业提供服务,例如育婴、电影业和银行业。(店主和会计师是第三产业的工人。)

到了20世纪,经济学家开始认为,传统的三级服务可以进一步区分出“第四产业”和“第五产业”的服务业部门。第四产业部门的经济活动包括基于信息和知识的服务,而第三产业服务包括人类服务英语Human services和招待性行业相关的产业。[2]

历史演变[编辑]

一个经济体可能包括几个连续阶段发展起来的部门(也称为“产业”):

发达国家相比,即使在近代,发展中国家仍更倾向于依赖前两个部门。

按所有权[编辑]

经济也可以按照不同的所有权划分:

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Zoltan Kenessey. The Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Sectors of the Economy (PDF). The Review of Income and Wealth. [20 April 2012]. Regarding the terminology itself Clark informs that "the term tertiary industries was originated by Professor A. G. B. Fisher in New Zealand, and became widely known through the publication of his book, The Clash of Progress and Security, in 1935. It took its origin from the titles current in Australia and New Zealand of 'primary industry' for agriculture, grazing, trapping, forestry, fishing and mining, and 'secondary industry' for manufacture. In Australia and New Zealand these terms are not only used in statistical reference books but are widely current in popular discussion. The phrase 'tertiary industries' therefore immediately carries, in these countries, a suggestion of those excluded by the official definition of 'secondary industries." 
  2. ^ Matt Rosenberg. Sectors of the Economy. About.com. 14 January 2007 [20 April 2012].