维纳斯和罗马神庙

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从斗兽场看维纳斯和罗马神庙

维纳斯和罗马神庙(Templum Veneris et Romae)是已知最大的古罗马神庙,位于古罗马广场的最东端,靠近罗马斗兽场,崇拜对象是幸运女神维纳斯和永恒的罗马(Roma Aeterna)。建筑师是哈德良皇帝。神庙始建于121年,135年哈德良皇帝正式揭幕,141年安托宁皮尤斯完成。307年毁于大火,马克森提皇帝加以重建。

这座神庙修建在尼禄皇帝金宫(Domus Aurea)的地基上,尼禄巨像(Colossus)也迁往剧场(不久建成斗兽场)附近。哈德良拥有建筑技能。

9世纪初严重的地震再次摧毁了神庙。大约850年教宗利奧四世下令在神庙遗址上新建圣母新堂(Santa Maria Nova)。1612年大规模重建后改名为圣方济加堂(Santa Francesca Romana),纳入罗马cella 作为钟楼。

参考资料[编辑]

  • Lorenzatti, Sandro. Vicende del tempio di Venere e Roma nel Medioevo e nel Rinascimento. Rivista dell’Istituto Nazionale di Archeologia e storia dell’Arte. 1990, (13): pp. 119–138. 

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro. 1987. Hadrian and the City of Rome. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Brown, Frank Edward. 1964. “Hadrianic Architecture.” In Essays in Memory of Karl Lehmann, Edited by Lucy F. Sandler. Marsyas, Stud. in the Hist. of Art Suppl.; I, 55-58. New York: Inst. of Fine Arts New York Univ.
  • Henderson, L. E. 1936. “The Temple of Venus and Roma.” The Classical Bulletin CII: 1-62.
  • Lorenzatti, Sandro. Vicende del tempio di Venere e Roma nel Medioevo e nel Rinascimento. Rivista dell'Istituto Nazionale di Archeologia e storia dell'Arte. 1990, (13): 119–138. 
  • Jacobson, David M. 1986. “Hadrianic Architecture and Geometry.” American Journal of Archaeology XC: 69-85.
  • Ng, Diana Y. and Molly Swetnam-Burland eds. 2018. Reuse and Renovation in Roman Material Culture: Functions, Aesthetics, Interpretations.   Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.
  • Stamper, John. 2005. The Architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire.   Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press
  • Ziemssen, Hauke. 2006. “Maxentius and the City of Rome: Imperial Building Policy in an Urban Context.” In Common Ground : Archaeology, Art, Science, and Humanities: Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Boston, August 23-26, 2003, Edited by Carol C. Mattusch, Alice A. Donohue, and Amy Brauer, 400-404. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

外部链接[编辑]

坐标41°53′27″N 12°29′23″E / 41.89083°N 12.48972°E / 41.89083; 12.48972