美国圣公会

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美国圣公会的盾徽
美国圣公会會旗

美国圣公会The Episcopal Church)是普世聖公宗美国洪都拉斯台湾哥伦比亚厄瓜多尔海地多米尼加共和国委内瑞拉英属维尔京群岛和部分欧洲地区的一个教区英语Ecclesiastical province#Anglican Communion[1][2][3]教會體制主教制。總部位於紐約市

美国圣公会保持了圣公会神学认识和宗教传统,并且自称是“遵循大公教会传统的新教派别”(Protestant, yet Catholic)[4]聖公會繼承了使徒統緒,認定其主教的按立源自於使徒時代的聖秩聖事公禱書是聖公會共用的禮儀書,同時也是普世聖公宗和各成員教會的法典。

美國聖公會現任首席主教為孔茂功(Michael Bruce Curry英语Michael Curry (bishop),又譯:米高.嘉里)。孔茂功原任北卡羅萊納教區主教區(Diocese of North Carolina),他在2015年6月25至7月3日期間於美國猶他州鹽湖城召開的美國聖公會第78屆全國大會(General Convention)上,獲選接替嘉芙蓮.舒歌莉(Katharine Jefferts Schori,又譯:蕭寬玲)成為美國聖公會第27任首席主教,亦是美國聖公會首位非裔首席主教。

美國聖公會在社會福音運動相當活躍,反對死刑,支持民權運動以及肯定性行動(affirmative action)。

美國聖公會參與普世教會協會,並和美國福音路德教會、美國部份省份的摩拉維亞弟兄會瑞典教會舊天主教會烏特勒支聯盟英语Union of Utrecht (Old Catholic)達成共融[5]。2016年1月14日,由於對同性婚姻的立場分歧,美國聖公宗與普世聖公宗協議停止與普世聖公宗的共融三年。[6]

歷史[编辑]

美国革命後不久,由于英国圣公会的所有神职人员都必须宣誓效忠英国君主,圣公会美国教区被要求与英国圣公会断绝关系,於是在1789年成立了美國聖公會。

今天美国圣公会分为九个教区和美国以外的海外辖区,这些海外辖区包括台湾、拉丁美洲中部和南部、加勒比海地区和欧洲。

体制[编辑]

美国圣公会采用主教制,与其他圣公会相同。

该会目前分为110个教区,分布在美国本土,以及哥伦比亚多米尼加共和国厄瓜多尔海地洪都拉斯波多黎各台湾委内瑞拉维尔京群岛和欧洲。[7] 这些教区组成9个教省,每个教省有一个大会,但无权管理下属教区。

今天,美国圣公会共有7000多个堂会,其全国总部设在纽约第二大道815号,圣公会人士常简称为“815”[8]

西雅图的美国圣公会約翰·马可座堂

神學院[编辑]

  • Berkeley Divinity School at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut
  • Bexley Hall Seabury Western Theological Seminary Federation:
    • Bexley Hall, Bexley, Ohio
    • Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, Chicago, Illinois
  • Church Divinity School of the Pacific, Berkeley, California
  • 聖公會總會神學院英语General Theological Seminary , New York City
  • Nashotah House , Nashotah, Wisconsin
  • School of Theology at The University of the South , Sewanee, Tennessee
  • Seminary of the Southwest , Austin, Texas
  • Trinity School for Ministry , Ambridge, Pennsylvania
  • 維吉尼亞神學院英语Virginia Theological Seminary , Alexandria, Virginia

争议[编辑]

按立妇女[编辑]

2006年6月18日,選出新任主席主教,來自內華達州教區的嘉芙蓮·舒歌莉主教於2006年底在華盛頓國家座堂舉行就職典禮。她是聖公宗歷史上第一位女性大主教

LGBT[编辑]

2003年11月2日,美国圣公会按立公开的男同志罗宾逊(Rev. Canon V. Gene Robinson)为新罕布什尔州教区主教,引起轩然大波。這次按立,直接引至由全球保守派聖公會主教組成的聖公會南半球聯盟於2008年6月22日,在耶路撒冷舉行首次全球聖公宗前途會議

美国圣公会代表组织重新确定对LGBT的立场,表示LGBT信徒是美国教会“不可缺少”的一部分。[9]

2012年7月10日,美国圣公会在印第安納波利斯召开的圣公会总会。“代表会议”以171票赞成、50票反对的结果,投票压倒性地通过一项名为“终身契约之见证与祝福”的提案,同意各教区主教为同性伴侶举行宗教上的祝福仪式,包括目前已承认同性婚姻的州内也可施行。圣公会发言人戴维居表示,新措施将于12月生效,先实施三年再做评估。圣公会也成为美国首个认可祝福同性婚姻的最大宗教团体。[10]

信徒人数[编辑]

2007年,美国圣公会受洗信徒的人数为2,154,572人,较2006年人数2,205,376人下降4.15% [11][12]

虽然人数下降是近年来许多主流教派(Oldline Protestant)普遍面临的问题[13],不过仅在2003年到2005年,美国圣公会就流失了115,000名信徒,许多是因为按立公开的男同志罗宾逊担任新罕布什尔主教事件[14]

海外传教[编辑]

1820年,成立美国圣公会差会

1835年,美国圣公会决定到中国传教,Henry Lockwood 和 Francis R. Hanson 无法留在广州,改去爪哇。1841年文惠廉(William Jones Boone)到澳门,1842年迁到厦门,1845年7月17日,到达上海。主要在中国中部长江流域传教。1912年加入中華聖公會。

目前美国圣公会的信徒还分布在美国以外的中南美洲、加勒比海、台湾和欧洲等地。

参考文献[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ edited by F. L. Cross.; F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition. USA: Oxford University Press. 13 March 1997: 554. ISBN 0-19-211655-X. 
  2. ^ Episcopal Church. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. 2001-05 [2007-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2008-12-05). 
  3. ^ Episcopal Church USA. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. [2007-09-09]. 
  4. ^ What makes us Anglican? Hallmarks of the Episcopal Church. Episcopalchurch.org. [2008-11-16]. (原始内容存档于2011-06-12). 
  5. ^ Full Communion Partners. episcopal church. 
  6. ^ Anglicans suspend Episcopal Church over same-sex marriage,Daniel Burke,CNN,2016
  7. ^ The Anglican Communion Official Website: Iglesia Episcopal de Cuba
  8. ^ What's Happening at 815? 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-07-09.
  9. ^ Executive Council letter affirms Episcopal Church's welcome to all people. We wish clearly to affirm that our position as a church is to welcome all persons, particularly those perceived to be the least among us. We wish to reaffirm to our lesbian and gay members that they remain a welcome and integral part of the Episcopal Church. 
  10. ^ Episcopal Church Approves Gay Couples' Same-Sex Blessings. huffington post. 2012. 
  11. ^ Dart, John. Episcopal membership loss 'precipitous'. The Christian Century. 2006-11-14 [2008-05-25]. 
  12. ^ From 2005 Parochial Reports. Source: The General Convention Office as of January 2007 Retrieved October 25, 2007
  13. ^ Mainline Protestant churches no longer dominate 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-12-31.
  14. ^ "Episcopal membership loss 'precipitous'", The Christian Century, November 14, 2006, retrieved 2007-10-27

来源[编辑]

Adams, Elizabeth. Going to Heaven: The Life and Election of Bishop Gene Robinson. Brooklyn, New York: Soft Skull Press. 2006. ISBN 978-1-933368-22-1. 
Baltzell, E. Digby. The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America. New York: Random House. 1964. 
Bourgeois, Michael. All Things Human: Henry Codman Potter and the Social Gospel in the Episcopal Church. Studies in Anglican History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-252-02877-9. 
Butler, Diana Hochstedt. Standing Against the Whirlwind: Evangelical Episcopalians in Nineteenth-Century America. Religion in America. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. ISBN 978-0-19-508542-6. 
Bell, James B. A War of Religion: Dissenters, Anglicans, and the American Revolution. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. 2008. ISBN 978-0-230-54297-6. 
Clark, Jennifer. 'Church of Our Fathers': The Development of the Protestant Episcopal Church Within the Changing Post-Revolutionary Anglo-American Relationship. Journal of Religious History. 1994, 18 (1): 27–51. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.1994.tb00225.x. 需要付费订阅. 
Davidson, James D.; Pyle, Ralph E.; Reyes, David V. Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930–1992. Social Forces. 1995, 74 (1): 157–175. JSTOR 2580627. doi:10.1093/sf/74.1.157. 需要付费订阅. 
Douglas, Ian T. Anglican Mission in Changing Times: A Brief Institutional History of the Episcopal Church, USA. (编) Roozen, David A.; Nieman, James R. Church, Identity, and Change: Theology and Denominational Structures in Unsettled Times. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 2005: 188–197. ISBN 978-0-8028-2819-4. 
Frum, David. How We Got Here: The '70s. New York City: Basic Books. 2000. ISBN 978-0-465-04195-4. 
Hacker, Andrew. Liberal Democracy and Social Control. American Political Science Review. 1957, 51 (4): 1009–1026. JSTOR 1952449. doi:10.2307/1952449. 需要付费订阅. 
Hein, David; Shattuck, Gardiner H, Jr. The Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing. 2004. ISBN 978-0-89869-497-0. 
Mason, Lockert B. Separation and Reunion of the Episcopal Church, 1860–1865: The Role of Bishop Thomas Atkinson. Anglican and Episcopal History. 1990, 59 (3): 345–365. JSTOR 42610426. 
Piepkorn, Arthur Carl. Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada. New York: Harper & Row. 1977. ISBN 978-0-06-066580-7. 
Podmore, Colin. A Tale of Two Churches: The Ecclesiologies of The Episcopal Church and the Church of England Compared. International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church. 2008, 8 (2): 124–154. doi:10.1080/14742250801930822. 需要付费订阅. 
Reeder, Kathleen E. Whose Church Is It, Anyway? Property Disputes and Episcopal Church Splits. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems. 2006, 40 (2): 125–171. 
Swatos, William H, Jr. A Primacy of Systems: Confederation, Cooperation, and Communion. (编) Roozen, David A.; Nieman, James R. Church, Identity, and Change: Theology and Denominational Structures in Unsettled Times. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 2005: 198–226. ISBN 978-0-8028-2819-4. 
Sydnor, William. Looking at the Episcopal Church. Morehouse Publishing. 1980. ISBN 978-0-8192-1279-5. 
Williams, Peter W. The Gospel of Wealth and the Gospel of Art: Episcopalians and Cultural Philanthropy from the Gilded Age to the Depression. Anglican and Episcopal History. 2006, 75 (2): 170–223. JSTOR 42612970. 
Zahl, Paul F. M. The Protestant Face of Anglicanism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1998. ISBN 978-0-8028-4597-9. 

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Anglican & Episcopal HistoryThe Journal of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church (articles, church reviews, and book reviews).
  • Articles on leading Episcopalians, both lay (e.g., George Washington, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frances Perkins) and ordained, in American National Biography. (1999). Edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Also 100 biographical articles in Hein and Shattuck, The Episcopalians: see below.
  • A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Holmes, David L. (1993). Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International.
  • A Dictionary for Episcopalians. Wall, John N. (2000). Boston, MA: Cowley Publications.
  • Documents of Witness: A History of the Episcopal Church, 1782–1985. Armentrout, Don S., & Slocum, Robert Boak. (1994). New York: Church Hymnal Corporation.
  • Readings from the History of the Episcopal Church. Prichard, Robert W. (Ed.). (1986). Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow.
  • The Episcopal Clerical Directory. New York: Church Publishing.
  • An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians. Armentrout, Don S., & Slocum, Robert Boak. (Eds.). ([1999]). New York: Church Publishing Incorporated.
  • About the Concordat: 28 Questions about the Agreement between the Episcopal Church and the Evangelical Church of America [i.e. the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America], prepared by the Ecumenical Relations Office of the Episcopal Church. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, [1997?]. 43 p. Without ISBN
  • A Commentary on [the Episcopal Church/Evangelical Lutheran Church in America] Concordat of Agreement, ed. by James E. Griffes and Daniel Martensen. Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg-Fortress; Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, 1994. 159 p. ISBN 0-8066-2690-9
  • Concordat of Agreement [between the Episcopal Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America]: Supporting Essays, ed. by Daniel F. Martensen. Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg-Fortress; Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, 1995. 234 p. ISBN 0-8066-2667-4
  • Seltser, Barry Jay. Episcopalian Crisis: Authority, Homosexuality & the Future of Anglicanism. Commonweal. 19 May 2006, 133 (10) [December 19, 2006]. (原始内容存档于20 October 2007).  An essay on Hooker and the present discontents.
  • The History of the Episcopal Church in America, 1607–1991: A Bibliography. Caldwell, Sandra M., & Caldwell, Ronald J. (1993). New York: Garland Publishing.
  • Shattuck, Gardiner H, Jr. Episcopalians and Race: Civil War to Civil Rights. Religion in the South. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. 2000. ISBN 978-0-8131-2149-9. 
  • Jamestown Commitment: the Episcopal Church [i.e. the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.] and the American Indian, by Owanah Anderson. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications (1988). 170 p. ISBN 0-88028-082-4
  • Mullin, Robert Bruce. "Trends in the Study of the History of the Episcopal Church," Anglican and Episcopal History, June 2003, Vol. 72 Issue 2, pp 153–165, historiography
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia article on the Episcopal Church in the U.S. South
  • "The Forgotten Evangelicals: Virginia Episcopalians, 1790–1876". Waukechon, John Frank. Dissertation Abstracts International, 2001, Vol. 61, Issue 8, pp. 3322–3322.
  • Tarter, Brent. Reflections on the Church of England in Colonial Virginia. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 2004, 112 (4): 338–371. JSTOR 4250211. doi:10.2307/4250211. 
  • Noble Powell and the Episcopal Establishment in the Twentieth Century. Hein, David. (2001, 2007). Urbana: University of Illinois Press; paperback reprint, Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock.
  • Rewriting History: Scapegoating the Episcopal Church. Savitri Hensman. Ekklesia. 2007.

外部链接[编辑]