美国学派

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美国学派(英語:American School),又称国民体系(英語:National System),是在政治,政策和哲学上相关的经济理论。在宏观经济学看来,美国学派主导了自美国内战到20世纪中叶美国的经济政策[1][2][3][4][5][6]。历史学家迈克尔·林德(Michael Lind)将其描述为一种连贯的应用经济哲学,与其他经济思想具有逻辑和概念关系。[7]

内容[编辑]

美国学派与重商主义相关联,其主要观点是:

  • 通过有选择的高关税(尤其是1861—1932)或补贴(尤其是1932—1970)来保护国内工商业
  • 国家投资建设基础设施(主要是道路交通等)
  • 国家银行资助有生产力的企业成长[8][9][10][11]

政策实践[编辑]

美国学派的关键内容是约翰·昆西·亚当斯及其国家共和党亨利·克莱辉格党以及亚伯拉罕·林肯通过早期共和党推动的,该党拥护、实施和维持了这一经济体系。[12]

在此时期,美国成长为世界上最大的经济体,在1880年代超过了大英帝国[13]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ "Second Bank of the United States" U-S-History.com.
  2. ^ "Republican Party Platform of 1860" presidency.ucsb.edu
  3. ^ "Republican Party Platform of 1856" presidency.ucsb.edu.
  4. ^ Pacific Railway Act (1862) ourdocuments.gov.
  5. ^ "History of U.S. Banking" SCU.edu 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-12-04..
  6. ^ ANDREWS, E. Benjamin, p. 180 of Scribner's Magazine Volume 18 #1 (January–June 1896); "A History of the Last Quarter-Century".
  7. ^ "Free Trade Fallacy" New America.
  8. ^ Lind, Michael: "Lincoln and his successors in the Republican party of 1865–1932, by presiding over the industrialization of the United States, foreclosed the option that the United States would remain a rural society with an agrarian economy, as so many Jeffersonians had hoped." and "... Hamiltonian side ... the Federalists; the National Republicans; the Whigs, the Republicans; the Progressives." — "Hamilton's Republic" Introduction pp. xiv–xv. Free Press, Simon & Schuster: 1997. ISBN 0-684-83160-0.
  9. ^ Lind, Michael: "During the nineteenth century the dominant school of American political economy was the "American School" of developmental economic nationalism ... The patron saint of the American School was Alexander Hamilton, whose Report on Manufactures (1791) had called for federal government activism in sponsoring infrastructure development and industrialization behind tariff walls that would keep out British manufactured goods ... The American School, elaborated in the nineteenth century by economists like Henry Carey (who advised President Lincoln), inspired the "American System" of Henry Clay and the protectionist import-substitution policies of Lincoln and his successors in the Republican party well into the twentieth century." — "Hamilton's Republic" Part III "The American School of National Economy" pp. 229–30. Free Press, Simon & Schuster: 1997. ISBN 0-684-83160-0.
  10. ^ Richardson, Heather Cox: "By 1865, the Republicans had developed a series of high tariffs and taxes that reflected the economic theories of Carey and Wayland and were designed to strengthen and benefit all parts of the American economy, raising the standard of living for everyone. As a Republican concluded ... "Congress must shape its legislation as to incidentally aid all branches of industry, render the people prosperous, and enable them to pay taxes ... for ordinary expenses of Government." — "The Greatest Nation of the Earth" Chapter 4, "Directing the Legislation of the Country to the Improvement of the Country: Tariff and Tax Legislation" pp. 136–37. President and Fellows of Harvard College: 1997. ISBN 0-674-36213-6.
  11. ^ Boritt, Gabor S: "Lincoln thus had the pleasure of signing into law much of the program he had worked for through the better part of his political life. And this, as Leonard P. Curry, the historian of the legislation has aptly written, amounted to a "blueprint for modern America." and "The man Lincoln selected for the sensitive position of Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, was an ex-Democrat, but of the moderate variety on economics, one whom Joseph Dorfman could even describe as 'a good Hamiltonian, and a western progressive of the Lincoln stamp in everything from a tariff to a national bank.'" — "Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream" Chapter 14, "The Whig in the White House" pp. 196–97. Memphis State University Press: 1994. ISBN 0-87870-043-9.
  12. ^ Howe, Daniel Walker "The policies of tariff protection, federally sponsored internal improvements, and national banking that were later to be known as the “American System” took coherent shape in the years between 1816 and 1828 and were coherent with the “national” wing of the Republican party." - "The Political Culture of the American Whigs, pp. 48-49. University of Chicago Press, 1979. J.L.M. Curry, "Confederate States and Their Constitution", The Galaxy, New York, 1874 cornell.edu. 
  13. ^ Gill, William J. "By 1880 the United States of America had overtaken and surpassed England as industrial leader of the world." — "Trade Wars Against America: A History of United States Trade and Monetary Policy", Chapter 6, "America becomes Number 1" pp. 39–49. Praeger Publishers: 1990. ISBN 0-275-93316-4.