美洲南瓜

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美洲南瓜
Cucurbita pepo collage 1.png
各种人工栽培品种,左上起顺时针分别为:pattypan squash英语pattypan squashyellow summer squash英语yellow summer squash西葫芦南瓜
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支: 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支: 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
演化支: 蔷薇类植物 Rosids
目: 葫芦目 Cucurbitales
科: 葫芦科 Cucurbitaceae
属: 南瓜属 Cucurbita
种: 美洲南瓜 C. pepo
二名法
Cucurbita pepo
L., 1753
Subspecies[1]
異名[2]
  • Citrullus variegatus Schrad. ex M.Roem.
  • Cucumis pepo (L.) Dumort.
  • Cucumis zapallo Steud.
  • Cucurbita aurantia Willd.
  • Cucurbita ceratoceras Haberle ex Mart.
  • Cucurbita clodiensis Nocca
  • Cucurbita courgero Ser.
  • Cucurbita elongata Bean ex Schrad.
  • Cucurbita esculenta Gray
  • Cucurbita fastuosa Salisb.
  • Cucurbita grisea M.Roem.
  • Cucurbita hybrida Bertol. ex Naudin
  • Cucurbita lignosa Mill.
  • Cucurbita mammeata Molina
  • Cucurbita mammosa J.F.Gmel.
  • Cucurbita marsupiiformis Haberle ex M.Roem. [Invalid]
  • Cucurbita melopepo L.
  • Cucurbita oblonga Link
  • Cucurbita polymorpha Duchesne
  • Cucurbita pomiformis M.Roem.
  • Cucurbita pyridaris Duchesne ex Poir.
  • Cucurbita pyxidaris DC.
  • Cucurbita subverrucosa Willd.
  • Cucurbita succado Nägeli ex Naudin
  • Cucurbita succedo Arn.
  • Cucurbita tuberculosa Schrad.
  • Cucurbita urnigera Schrad.
  • Cucurbita variegata Steud.
  • Cucurbita venosa Descourt.
  • Cucurbita verrucosa L.
  • Pepo citrullus Sageret
  • Pepo potiron Sageret
  • Pepo vulgaris Moench

美洲南瓜學名Cucurbita pepo)是葫蘆目葫蘆科南瓜屬下的一个种。它的人工栽培品种在北美十分广泛,英语常通称为Squash。在亚洲最常见的品种为南瓜西葫芦。 美洲南瓜在北美被人工栽培了数千年,在密苏里地区有四千年以上的历史[3]

人工栽培品种[编辑]

大多为北美品种,许多英语名称无中文译名。

栽培群 植物学名称 图像 描述
橡果形 C. pepo var. turbinata Starr 070730-7820 Cucurbita pepo.jpg winter squash, both a shrubby and creeping plant, obovoid or conical shape, pointed at the apex and with longitudinal grooves, thus resembling a spinning top,[4] ex: Acorn squash英语Acorn squash[3][5][6]
Cocozzelle C. pepo var. ionga Cucurbita pepo Cocozelle fruits.jpg summer squash, long round slender fruit that is slightly bulbous at the apex,[4] similar to fastigata, ex: Cocozelle von tripolis[3][5][6]
歪脖南瓜 C. pepo var. torticollia Crooked Neck Squash.jpg summer squash, shrubby plant, with yellow, golden, or white fruit which is long and curved at the end and generally has a verrucose (wart-covered) rind,[4] ex: Yellow crookneck squash英语Yellow crookneck squash[3][5][6]
南瓜型 C. pepo var. pepo
Pumpkin 2 - Evan Swigart.jpg
winter squash, creeping plant, round, oblate, or oval shape and round or flat on the ends,[4] ex: 南瓜;[3][5][6] includes C. pepo subsp. pepo var. styriaca, used for Styrian pumpkin seed oil英语pumpkin seed oil[7]
扇贝型 C. pepo var. clypeata; called C. melopepo by Linnaeus[8] Pattypan squash J1.jpg summer squash, prefers half-shrubby habitat, flattened or slightly discoidal shape, with undulations or equatorial edges,[4] ex: Pattypan squash英语Pattypan squash[3][5][6]
直南瓜 C. pepo var. recticollis Cucurbita pepo Yellow Squash 3.jpg summer squash, shrubby plant, with yellow or golden fruit and verrucose rind, similar to var. torticollia but a stem end that narrows,[4] ex: Yellow summer squash英语Yellow summer squash[3][5][6]
菜用南瓜 C. pepo var. fastigata Spaghetti Squash 700.jpg summer and winter squashes, creeper traits and a semi-shrub, cream to dark green color, short round fruit with a slightly broad apex,[4] ex: Spaghetti squash (a winter variety)[3][5][6]
西葫芦 C. pepo var. cylindrica Zucchini-Whole.jpg summer squash, presently the most common group of cultivars, origin is recent (19th century), semi-shrubby, cylindrical fruit with a mostly consistent diameter,[4] similar to fastigata, ex: Zucchini[3][5][6]
装饰性葫芦 C. pepo var. ovifera Cucurbita pepo var ovifera (crop).jpg 不可食用的品种[9]。 field pumpkins closely related to C. texana, vine habitat, thin stems, small leaves, three sub-groups: C. pepo var. ovifera (egg-shaped, pear-shaped), C. pepo var. aurantia (orange color), and C. pepo var. verrucosa (round warty gourds), ornamental gourds found in Texas and called var. texana and ornamental gourds found outside of Texas (Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana) are called var. ozarkana.[10]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Paris, H. S.; Yonash, N.; Portnoy, V.; Mozes-Daube, N.; Tzuri, G.; Katzir, N. Assessment of Genetic Relationships in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae) Using DNA Markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. April 2003, 106 (6): 971–978. PMID 12671744. doi:10.1007/s00122-002-1157-0 (不活跃 2016-01-19). 
  2. ^ The Plant List, Cucurbita pepo
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Saade, R. Lira; Hernández, S. Montes. Cucurbits. Purdue Horticulture. [September 2, 2013]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Paris, Harry S. A Proposed Subspecific Classification for Cucurbita pepo. Phytologia (Bronx Park). 1986, 61 (3): 133–138. [永久失效連結]
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Cucurbita pepo. Missouri Botanical Garden. [September 2, 2013]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Heistinger, Andrea. The Manual of Seed Saving: Harvesting, Storing, and Sowing Techniques for Vegetables, Herbs, and Fruits. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 2013: 278. ISBN 978-1-60469-382-9. 
  7. ^ Fürnkranz, Michael; Lukesch, Birgit; Müller, Henry; Huss, Herbert; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele. Microbial Diversity Inside Pumpkins: Microhabitat-Specific Communities Display a High Antagonistic Potential Against Phytopathogens. Microbial Ecology (Springer). 2012, 63 (2): 418–428. JSTOR 41412429. doi:10.2307/41412429 (不活跃 2016-01-19). 
  8. ^ Decker-Walters, Deena S.; Staub, Jack E.; Chung, Sang-Min; Nakata, Eijiro; Quemada, Hector D. Diversity in Free-Living Populations of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae) as Assessed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Systematic Botany英语Systematic Botany (American Society of Plant Taxonomists). 2002, 27 (1): 19–28. JSTOR 3093892. doi:10.2307/3093892 (不活跃 2016-01-19). 
  9. ^ Decker, Deena S.; Wilson, Hugh D. Allozyme Variation in the Cucurbita pepo Complex: C. pepo var. ovifera vs. C. texana. Systematic Botany英语Systematic Botany (American Society of Plant Taxonomists). 1987, 12 (2): 263–273. JSTOR 2419320. doi:10.2307/2419320. 
  10. ^ Free-living Cucurbita pepo in the United States Viral Resistance, Gene Flow, and Risk Assessment. Texas A&M Bioinformatics Working Group. [September 8, 2013].