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翼狀豬籠草

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翼狀豬籠草
Nepenthes alata ASR 062007 mt ambucao luzon.jpg
翼狀豬籠草的上位笼,攝於呂宋島北部巴纳韦及萨加达附近
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支: 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支: 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
目: 石竹目 Caryophyllales
科: 猪笼草科 Nepenthaceae
属: 猪笼草属 Nepenthes
种: 翼狀豬籠草 N. alata
二名法
Nepenthes alata
Blanco, 1837[1]
異名

同物异名

异物同名

翼狀豬籠草[16]學名Nepenthes alata),又名紅豬籠草,是菲律賓特有的熱帶食蟲植物[6][17]種加詞alata”來源於拉丁文alatus”,意為“翼狀的”。

翼状猪笼草长期以来被视为是一种形态多样性极高且分布范围涵盖整个菲律宾群岛的物种(巴拉望岛例外)。[18]所以在这个定义下其分布范围被视作为0至1900米[17],其中包括保和島卡米金岛宿雾岛库利昂岛莱特岛吕宋岛棉兰老岛民都洛岛内格罗斯岛班乃岛薩馬島[19][20]锡布延岛。同时,翼状猪笼草在这个定义下也是猪笼草属中种植得最为广泛且的物种。[21]

2013年,马修·杰布马丁·奇克重新分类了仅分布于吕宋岛北部及中部的物种,这些物种的捕虫笼均具有显著的毛被(这些类群在园艺上被称之为“多毛翼状猪笼草”)。[6]根据这种分类,分布于更南部的类群则被指向一个被恢复的物种——小花猪笼草N. graciliflora,园艺上的“典型翼状猪笼草”,其分布于保和島、莱特岛、吕宋岛、棉兰老岛、民都洛岛、班乃岛、薩馬島及锡布延岛)及新描述的内格罗斯岛猪笼草N. negros比利蘭島及内格罗斯岛)拉莫斯猪笼草N. negros,棉兰老岛)[6][22]分布于迪纳加特岛与薩馬島的绿猪笼草N. viridis也为其近亲[23],此外还有塞西尔猪笼草N. ceciliae,棉兰老岛)科普兰猪笼草N. copelandii,迪纳加特岛与棉兰老岛)绝灭猪笼草N. extincta,棉兰老岛)汉密吉伊坦山猪笼草N. hamiguitanensi,棉兰老岛)奇坦兰山猪笼草N. kitanglad,棉兰老岛)仓田猪笼草N. kurata,棉兰老岛)莱特岛猪笼草N. leyte,莱特岛)萨兰加尼猪笼草N. saranganiensis,棉兰老岛)超基猪笼草N. ultra,吕宋岛)[6][17][22][24][25][26]这些物种属于被称之为“翼状猪笼草组”的分类群,这些物种之间存在着许多共同特征,比如叶柄具翼、捕虫笼笼盖下表面基部存在附属物,及上位笼基部通常较宽。[24][6]

在園藝上,翼狀豬籠草是最容易栽培且栽培得最廣泛的物種之一,在台湾曾广泛栽培。但因其与葫芦猪笼草N. ventricosa的杂交种——红瓶猪笼草N. × ventrata更易种植且外观更优越。园艺上,翼状猪笼草逐渐被红瓶猪笼草代替,已少有人栽培。[16]

分类关系[编辑]

翼状猪笼草与许多其他的猪笼草物种间存在着密切的近缘关系,包括科普兰猪笼草棉兰老岛猪笼草萨兰加尼猪笼草。产自苏门答腊真穗猪笼草N. eustachya曾一度因模式标本的误释而被认为是翼状猪笼草的一个变种;实际上这两个物种间并没有密切的近缘关系。

翼状猪笼草与真穗猪笼草之间形态特征的区别(Jebb & Cheek, 1997)
形态特征 翼状猪笼草 真穗猪笼草
叶片 披针形-卵形 披针形
叶尖 急尖渐尖 圆形至亚盾形
叶柄 呈槽状 略呈或根本不呈槽状
笼蔓尾 不分叉,尖锐 不分叉或分叉
毛被 红色或白色 通体无毛
捕虫笼基部形状 结构与捕虫笼的其余部分类似,渐尖至笼蔓 角状,木质,渐尖至笼蔓

种下类群[编辑]

翼状猪笼草的下位笼

自然杂交种[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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扩展阅读[编辑]

維基共享資源中有關翼状猪笼草的多媒體資源 維基物種中有關翼状猪笼草的數據