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聖大衛日

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圣大卫日
圣大卫像
正式名稱Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant
参与者威尔士
圣公会
罗马天主教
類型威尔士地区的法定假日
日期3月1日
时长1天
频率每年

圣大卫日威爾斯語Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant 或者 Dydd Gŵyl Dewi, 威爾士語發音:[ˈdiːð ˈɡʊi̯l ˈdɛ.wi ˈsant])是威尔士主保圣人圣大卫(圣公会称圣大卫)的瞻礼日,纪念于每年3月1日。12世纪天主教会将圣大卫封圣后,3月1日即成为圣大卫的瞻礼日,不过目前圣大卫日不是英国的公众假日,仅是威尔士地区的法定假日。传统上圣大卫日里人们应该佩戴威尔士的象征韭葱水仙、食用威尔士的传统餐点威尔士肉汤英语cawlcawl)与威尔士干酪,女士要穿上威尔士的传统服装。卡迪夫斯旺西,以及阿伯里斯特威斯等地在圣大卫日会举行纪念游行活动。

已隱藏部分未翻譯内容,歡迎參與翻譯

Significance of the day[编辑]

圣大卫出生於威爾斯西南方Caerfai英语Caerfai Bay的一個貴族家庭。[1][2] He was reportedly a scion of the royal house of Ceredigion,[3] and founded a Celtic monastic community at Glyn Rhosyn (The Vale of Roses) on the western headland of Pembrokeshire (威爾斯語Sir Benfro) at the spot where 聖戴維斯座堂 stands today.[4]

David's fame as a teacher and his asceticism spread among Celtic Christians, and he helped found about 12 monasteries.[1] His foundation at Glyn Rhosyn became an important Christian shrine,[5] and the most important centre in Wales. The date of Saint David's death is believed to be 1 March 589.[6] His final words to the community of monks were: "Brothers be ye constant. The yoke which with single mind ye have taken, bear ye to the end; and whatsoever ye have seen with me and heard, keep and fulfil."[7]

For centuries, 1 March has been a national festival. Saint David was recognised as a national patron saint in the 12th century[2] at a peak time of Welsh resistance to the Normans.[8] 教宗嘉禮二世於1120年將他封為聖人。十七世紀的日記作家塞缪尔·皮普斯 noted how Welsh celebrations in London for Saint David's Day would spark wider counter-celebrations amongst their English neighbours: life-sized effigies of Welshmen were symbolically lynched,[9] and by the 18th century the custom had arisen of confectioners producing "taffies"—gingerbread figures baked in the shape of a Welshman riding a goat—on Saint David's Day.[10]

不同於愛爾蘭的圣帕特里克节,聖大衛日並非國定假日,though there is strong support for it 成為威爾斯的銀行假日。In the past, schools have taken a half-day holiday, which continues in some parts of Wales. Saint David's Day is also celebrated in expatriate Welsh communities outside the UK.[1] Cross-party support resulted in the National Assembly for Wales voting unanimously to make Saint David's Day a public holiday in 2000. A poll conducted for Saint David's Day in 2006 found that 87% of people in Wales wanted it to be a bank holiday, with 65% prepared to sacrifice a different bank holiday to achieve this.[11]2007年時英國首相托尼·布莱尔拒絕了一項使聖大衛日成為銀行假日的 petition。[來源請求]

In the poem Armes Prydein (The Prophesy of Britain), composed in the early to mid-10th century, the anonymous author prophesies that the Cymry (the Welsh people) will unite and join an alliance of fellow-Celts[12] to repel the Anglo-Saxons, under the banner of Saint David: A lluman glân Dewi a ddyrchafant ("And they will raise the pure banner of Dewi").[13] Although there were occasional Welsh uprisings in the Middle Ages, the country was briefly united by various Welsh princes before its conquest[14] at different times, and it arguably had a very short period of independence during the rising of Owain Glyndŵr,[15] but Wales as a whole was never an independent kingdom for long. Henry Tudor, 2nd Earl of Richmond, who was born in 彭布羅克城堡 as a patrilineal descendant of the Tudor Dynasty of North Wales,1485年在博斯沃思原野戰役打敗理查三世後,成為英格蘭君主亨利七世 to end the 玫瑰战争.[16] Henry's green and white banner with a red dragon became a rallying point for Welsh patriotism with the memory of Saint David on his Feast Day. Henry 是都鐸王朝第一任國王,and during the reign of that dynasty the royal coat of arms included the 紅龍, a reference to the monarch's origin. The banner from Henry's victory was not adopted as the official 威爾斯國旗 until 1959.[17] 然而,聖大衛旗, a golden cross on a black background, was not part of the symbolism of House of Tudor.[18]

Saint David's Day events[编辑]

Saint David's Day celebrations, Cardiff Bay, 2008
Saint David's Day Celebration, Cardiff Bay. 2009

加的夫[编辑]

Around Wales each year, Saint David is commemorated in parades, the largest of which in 加的夫. The parade is a non-military celebration of Welsh heritage and culture.[19]

To mark Saint David's Day, and their return from a six-month tour of Afghanistan, 2010年2月27日及2月28日,來自Royal Welsh Regiment的士兵在加的夫城堡的南門 provided 衛兵交接儀式。[20]

2010年3月1日,the seventh National Saint David's Day Parade took place in Cardiff city centre. Celebrations included concerts, a parade and a food festival. The food festival ran from 26 February with the third annual Really Welsh Food Festival in Queen Street, featuring all-Welsh produce.[21][22] Following the parade, a number of Welsh entertainers performed and in the evening 卡迪夫中央圖書館 provided free entertainment and food.[22]

其他地區[编辑]

In many towns an annual parade through the centre of town is now held. Concerts are held in pubs, clubs, and other venues.[1] In the town of 科爾溫灣 in north Wales, an annual parade through the centre of town is now held with several hundred citizens and schoolchildren taking part. Other events are centred on the parade.[23]

The town of Prestatyn closes the top of the High Street for local schools to participate in Welsh singing and local fundraising.[來源請求]

斯旺西 inaugurated a St David's Week festival in 2009 with a range of musical, sporting and cultural events held throughout the city to mark the national day.[24]

巴黎迪士尼樂園度假區 also organises yearly events to celebrate Saint David's Day which include a Welsh-themed week, fireworks, parades and Disney characters dressed in traditional Welsh attire.[25]

华盛顿哥伦比亚特区 holds a St. David's Day congressional reception at the 美國國會大廈 in honor of the 威尔士首席部长' biannual visits.[26]

The Los Angeles St. David's Day Festival – National Day of Wales is the largest annual event of its kind in the United States encompassing an eisteddfod, Celtic marketplace, classes, and a concert.[27]

Traditions[编辑]

Water in Swansea Castle Square fountain dyed red for Saint David's Day

Children in Wales take part in school concerts or eisteddfodau, with recitation and singing being the main activities. Formerly, schoolchildren were given a half-day holiday. Officially this custom does not continue, although the practice can vary between schools.[1] The younger girls sometimes wear traditional Welsh costumes to school. This costume consists of a long woollen skirt, apron, white blouse, woollen shawl and a Welsh hat.[1]

Also, various Welsh Regiments of the British Army use aspects of Saint David's cross, Saint David himself, or songs of Saint David in their formalities during the celebrations. Many Welsh people wear one or both of the National symbols of Wales to celebrate St. David: the daffodil (a generic Welsh symbol) or the leek (Saint David's personal symbol) on this day.[1] The leek arises from an occasion when a troop of Welsh were able to distinguish each other from a troop of English enemy (some historical accounts indicate Saxon invading forces), dressed in similar fashion, by wearing leeks.[28]

The 聖大衛旗 often plays a central role in the celebrations and can be seen flying throughout Wales. Popular dishes traditionally eaten on Saint David's Day include 威尔士肉汤英语cawlcawl), bara brith tea loaf, 威爾斯蛋糕, lamb and 威爾士乾酪.[1]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 St David's Day 2017: everything you need to know about Wales' patron saint. The Daily Telegraph. 2017-02-28 [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-02-28). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 St David (?-589). BBC News. [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-13). 
  3. ^ Jenkins, Simon. Wales: churches, houses, castles. Allen Lane. 2008: 125. 
  4. ^ Hilling, John. The historic architecture of Wales: an introduction. University of Wales Press. 1976: 39. ISBN 978-0-708-30626-0. 
  5. ^ St Davids Cathedral: A Brief History. stdavidscathedral.org. [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-02-28). 
  6. ^ Robin Gwyndaf, Margaret Dorothy Jones. Welsh Folk Tales / Chwedlau gwerin Cymru. Welsh Folk Museum. 1989: 47. 
  7. ^ St David's Day marked with Welsh Google Doodle. The Daily Telegraph. 2011-03-01 [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-01). 
  8. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica 29: 134. 2003. ISBN 978-0-852-29961-6. 
  9. ^ Samuel Pepys' Diary 1667. Pepys.info. [2013-03-01]. (原始内容存档于2013-01-28). 
  10. ^ Simpson, Jacqueline and Steve Roud (2000), Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore, Oxford: 牛津大學出版社. pp. 307–8.
  11. ^ Thomas, Guto. Poll backs St David's Day holiday. BBC News. 2006-03-01 [2008-03-01]. (原始内容存档于2008-11-30). 
  12. ^ Koch, John T. Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia. Vol. 1-. ABC-CLIO. [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-01) –通过Google Books. 
  13. ^ Ifor Williams (ed.), Armes Prydein (University of Wales Press, 1955), line 129.
  14. ^ Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
  15. ^ Glyndŵr Rising
  16. ^ John Davies, Nigel Jenkins, Menna Baines. The Welsh Academy encyclopaedia of Wales. University of Wales Press. 2008: 455. ISBN 978-0-708-31953-6. 
  17. ^ Matthews, Rupert. Wales, A Very Peculiar History. Andrews UK Limited. 2012: 12–13. ISBN 978-1-908-75922-1. 
  18. ^ Flag of St David. BBC Wales History. 2011-01-31 [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-04). 
  19. ^ St David's Day Parade in Cardiff. stdavidsday.org. [2017-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2017-02-14). 
  20. ^ Soldiers Go Marching on for St David's Day. WalesOnline. 2010-03-01 [2010-03-02]. (原始内容存档于2010-03-04). 
  21. ^ Cardiff's St David's Day Celebrations. WalesOnline. 2010-02-12 [2010-03-02]. 
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Sun Shines on St David's Day Parade. WalesOnline. 2010-03-02 [2010-03-02]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-12). 
  23. ^ youtube.com Video of 2007 Colwyn Bay St. David's Day Parade
  24. ^ St David's Week in Swansea. Saintdavidsday.com. [2012-03-02]. (原始内容存档于2011-10-06). 
  25. ^ St. David's Welsh Festival Celebrations Disneyland Paris. Enterthemagic.com. [2013-03-01]. (原始内容存档于2013-01-28). 
  26. ^ Archived copy. [2017-03-23]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-24). 
  27. ^ The 2013 Los Angeles St David's Festival – National Day of Wales – Welsh Icons News. Welshicons.org.uk. 2012-04-12 [2013-03-01]. (原始内容存档于2013-01-28). 
  28. ^ Dydd Dewi Sant. Davidmorgan.com. [2013-03-01]. (原始内容存档于2013-02-13). 

外部链接[编辑]