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胡塞运动

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胡塞武裝
真主虔信者
ٱلْحُوثِيُّون(胡塞武裝)
أَنْصَار ٱللَّٰه(真主虔信者)

參與也门什叶派起义2011年葉門反政府示威叙利亚内战2014-15年也门政变[1]
Houthis emblem.svg
胡塞运动的标语英语Slogan of the Houthi movement;其文字:“真主至大,打倒美國,打倒以色列,詛咒猶太人伊斯蘭勝利”[2][3][4]
活躍期1994年至今
(2004年起拥有武裝)
意識形態宰德派復興主義[5]


伊斯蘭革命[6][7]
社會正義[8][9][10][11]
反遜尼派[12][13] (被指控但否認)
團結什葉派-遜尼派[14][15]
反帝國主義[16]
民族統一主義[17]
反猶太復國主義[16]
反猶太主義[18] (否認)[19]
伊斯蘭主義[7]
也門民族主義[14][20]
大帳篷民粹主義[14]


反美主義[21][22]
領導人侯賽因·巴得瑞丁·胡塞 
阿卜杜勒-馬利克·胡塞英语Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi
發言人Mohammed Abdul Salam[23]
總部 葉門薩達薩那
活動地區
盟友國家盟友

非國家盟友

對手國家

非國家

戰役、戰爭也门什叶派起义
叙利亚内战
也门内战 (2014年至今)[62][63]
网站Ansarollah.com
被以下認定為恐怖組織 沙烏地阿拉伯[64]
阿联酋[65]
马来西亚[66]
UNSC UNSC[67]

胡塞运动(阿拉伯语:الحوثيون‎,al-Ḥūthiyyūn),正式名称是真主虔信者أنصار الله‎ ,anṣār allāh),是也门的一个伊斯兰教什叶派宰德派反政府武装组织,该组织被数个国家视为恐怖主义组织。

历史[编辑]

也门局势(2018年)
  胡塞运动和薩利赫的支持者控制
  也门总统阿卜杜拉布·曼苏尔·哈迪支持者控制
胡塞运动的書法體標誌。其內容為「信道的人們啊,你們應當做協助真主的人」(古蘭經61:14)[68][69]

胡塞运动的前身“信仰青年”于1992年在也门北部萨达省建立[70],创立者为宰德派宗教领袖侯赛因·胡塞

2003年伊拉克战争中,“信仰青年”在也门首都萨那萨利赫清真寺英语Saleh Mosque宣传反美反犹太口号。其后也门政府逮捕其多名成员。[71]虽然时任也門总统阿里·阿卜杜拉·萨利赫為宰德派出身,但萨利赫政府亲美,并且和以逊尼派为主的海湾合作委员会国家保持友好关系,導致青年信仰者視其為叛徒,双方渐行渐远。

2004年,侯赛因·胡塞开始武装起義反抗,但于9月10日在和也门政府军的战斗中陣亡。其追随者将“信仰青年”组织改名为“胡塞”,以示永远紀念侯赛因·胡塞。[72][73]此后,胡塞组织与也门政府间时断时续的冲突不断。直至2010年,双方签署了停火协议。[74]

胡塞武装参与了2011年也门反政府示威,但反对海湾合作委员会达成的协议,该协议将建立包括萨利赫在內的联合政府。

2011年11月,胡塞武装已控制也门北部的萨达省焦夫省[75]

2014年9月,胡塞武装进攻首都萨那发动政变,控制了部分政府大楼和广播电台。[76]这引起了逊尼派阿拉伯半岛基地组织的仇恨,该组织已经策划实施了多起针对胡塞武装的袭击事件。[77][78]

2014年底,胡塞武裝與前總統萨利赫結盟,共同對抗也門政府。[79]

2015年1月,胡塞武装继续控制首都萨那,围困了总理府。与政府军的交火造成多人死亡。[80]1月22日,在胡塞武装占领总统府、官邸和重要军事设施后,总统阿卜杜·拉布·曼苏尔·哈迪及其内阁辞职。

2月6日,胡塞武装宣布成立“总统委员会”和“全国过渡委员会”,以取代也门总统和议会治理国家。但联合国美国海合会等不予承认。[81]海合会一直指责伊朗支持胡塞叛军。

2月21日,总统哈迪从胡塞武装的软禁中逃离首都萨那,返回原南也门的首都亚丁。随后,他收回之前的辞呈[82]海合会国家纷纷将使馆迁至亚丁,以表示对哈迪的支持。[83]

胡塞武裝繼續向亞丁推進。3月26日,以沙特阿拉伯為首的多國聯軍發起果斷風暴行動,針對胡塞武裝目標的持續空襲開始。

2017年9月,胡塞武裝宣布任命「軍隊指揮官」、「最高司法委員會主席」和「財政部長」等要職,但盟友前總統薩利赫不同意,拒絕承認任命。2017年11月底,胡塞武装与萨利赫的關係急速惡化,雙方部队在也门首都萨那發生衝突。萨利赫於12月2日提出与沙特领导的联军进行对话,被胡塞武裝指責為對盟友發動“政变”。[84][85]薩利赫與胡塞武裝決裂後,雙方部隊爆發激戰。12月4日,萨利赫在逃離薩那的途中被胡塞武装殺死。[79]

2021年1月10日,美國川普政府的國務卿蓬佩奧發佈聲明,決定將胡塞武裝列為恐怖組織[86]。2月16日,美國新任喬·拜登政府宣佈將胡塞武裝從恐怖主義組織名單中移除。[87][88]

恐怖主义指控[编辑]

沙特阿拉伯阿联酋巴林以色列均已明確表示胡塞运动为恐怖主义組織。

美国已撤銷針對胡塞运动的恐怖主義指控。

参考资料[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]