自然景觀

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自然景觀是指一地區在人類活動之前,就已存在的原始景觀[note 1]。自然景觀和文化景觀英语cultural landscape是景觀二個不同的層面[note 2]。不過在二十一世紀時,地球上已找不到人類未曾活動過的地方[來源請求],因此有時「自然景觀是指景觀中和自然有關的成份[note 3]

雷切尔·卡森在《寂静的春天》(1962)中曾描述路邊以往的景色:「一年當中大部份的時間,路邊的月桂樹、莢蒾、榿木、大型蕨類及野花吸引著旅客的目光」,而在使用除草剂後,「曾經吸引目光的路邊,現今鋪滿了褐色枯萎的植物,看起來好像被火燒過一樣。」[3]。在路邊使用除草劑之前,可能已經有生物退化的情形,也可能有外來物種,但仍然可以從其中感受到自然景觀的概念。

「自然景觀」一詞最早是和風景畫景觀設計的詞語一起出現,是更接近自然的風格。亚历山大·冯·洪堡(1769 – 1859)更進一步的概念化,將自然景觀和文化景觀分開。1908年時,地理學家奧托·施呂特英语Otto Schlüter發展出「原始景觀」Urlandschaft以及「文化景觀」Kulturlandschaft的詞語,試圖突顯地理科學中,一個不同於其他科學的主題。早期地理學家使用「自然景觀」一詞可以回推到卡爾·歐·紹爾英语Carl O. Sauer1925年的論文《景觀形態》(The Morphology of Landscape)[4]

相關條目[编辑]

腳註[编辑]

  1. ^ "The area prior to the introduction of man 's activity is represented by one body of morphologic facts. The forms that man has introduced are another set. We may call the former, with reference to man, the original, natural landscape. In its entirety it no longer exists in many parts of the world, but its reconstruction and understanding are the first part of formal morphonology." [1]
  2. ^ "The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape the result." [2]
  3. ^ The European Environment Agency's planned forest naturalness index is an example of an attempt to define one type of natural landscape in Europe. The Agency lists forests in three categories: (1) Plantations; (2) Semi-natural; and (3) Naturally dynamic. The latter are "forests whose structure, composition and function have been shaped by natural dynamics without substantial anthropogenic influence over a long period of time".

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape". University of California Publications in Geography, vol. 2, No. 2, 12 October 1925, p. 37. https://archive.org/stream/universityofc02univ/universityofc02univ_djvu.txt
  2. ^ Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape", p. 46.
  3. ^ Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1962, p. 1.
  4. ^ Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape". University of California Publications in Geography 2 (2), pp. 19-53.

外部連結[编辑]

  • Developing a forest naturalness indicator for Europe [1]
  • Scottish heritage: Natural Spaces [2]
  • Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape" University of California Publications in Geography, vol. 2, No. 2, 12 October 1925, pp. 19–53 (scroll down): [3]