苏联政府压抑的科学研究

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

有一系列科学研究受到苏联政府的压抑,相关研究员经常受到不公正对待,动辄被贴上“资产阶级学者”的标签。

生物学[编辑]

1930年代中期起,李森科斯大林支持下发动了一场反对基因遗传学的运动。[1]该学说的创始人孟德尔是一个天主教聖職人員,这一点格外地激怒斯大林。[2][3][4][5]

语言学[编辑]

斯大林上台时,尼古拉·马尔雅弗理论居于统治地位,他认为语言是一种阶级构成。斯大林读到了一封齐克巴瓦的反对马尔的来信,于是把他召来进行了一次几个小时的谈话,作了大量的笔记。[6]于是他找到了足够的材料来反对马尔,结束了后者在苏联语言学界的统治地位,而斯大林自己就语言学只写过一篇论文, "马克思主义和语言学问题"[7]斯大林统治下也把比较语言学打为伪科学[8]

控制论[编辑]

斯大林也认定魏纳控制论为“资产阶级伪科学”。[9]在苏联,意识形态期刊《哲学问题》在1953年的一篇文章中评价控制论为“帝国主义者没有办法摧毁资本主义中的根本矛盾,他们不能阻止即将发生的经济危机。所以,他们尝试从狂热的军备竞赛和意识形态战争中寻找答案。在深层的绝望中,他们寻求伪科学带来的一线希望以苟延残喘”,1954年版《简明哲学词典》中称控制论为“反动的伪科学,首先出现在二战后的美国,后广泛传播于资本主义国家,是一种现代的机械论。”[10]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Hudson, P. S., and R. H. Richens. The New Genetics in the Soviet Union. Cambridge, U.K.: English School of Agriculture, 1946.
  2. ^ Isis, Volume 37. History of Science Society, Académie internationale d'histoire des sciences. 1947 [2007-10-18]. The fact that Mendel was a priest has been similarly used to discredit his ideas. 
  3. ^ Eugenics: Galton and After. Duckworth. 1952 [2007-10-18]. Was not Mendel a priest ? If, as the reactionaries maintain, genetic processes are subject to the laws of chance ... 
  4. ^ George Aiken Taylor. The Presbyterian Journal, Volume 31. Southern Presbyterian Journal Co. 1972 [2007-10-18]. Mendel, of course, must be discredited, in Communist thought, because he was a product of the West and of the Church. 
  5. ^ The Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy, Volumes 23-27. Australasian Association of Psychology and Philosophy. 1945 [2007-10-18]. He trenchantly criticises Lysenko's vilification of the work of Mendel and Morgan as "fascist, bourgeois-capitalistic, and inspired by clerics" (that Mendel was a priest is taken as sufficient to discredit his experiments). 
  6. ^ Montefiore. p.638, Phoenix, Reprinted paperback.
  7. ^ Joseph V. Stalin (1950-06-20). "Concerning Marxism in Linguistics", Pravda. Available online as Marxism and Problems of Linguistics including other articles and letters also published in Pravda soon after February 8 and July 4, 1950.
  8. ^ Robert Conquest Reflections on a Ravaged Century (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7, page 101-111
  9. ^ 苏联解体对当代中国政治的影响
  10. ^ 《信息论与编码引论:剑桥大学真题精解》前言