英钱

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英钱英语:pennyweight,缩写:dwt),或译为本尼威特便士重,英美重量单位,等于24格令120金衡盎司1240金衡磅,约等于0.054857常衡盎司[1]或1.55517384 [2]

历史[编辑]

在中世纪,一个英国便士英语Penny (British pre-decimal coin)的重量是相差无几的,在货币方面,1便士等于120盎司或1240标准纯银英语sterling silver磅。当时所用的磅是塔磅。中世纪的英国便士重等于32塔衡格令(也称麦格令)。1527年,金衡制代替塔衡制,在金衡制中,旧的塔衡磅等于5400金衡格令(也称巴利肯/大麦粒),塔衡英钱为2212金衡格令,约等于1.46克。1527年后,英钱改用金衡制英钱。[3]

应用[编辑]

在1878年的《重量及计量条例英语Weights and Measures Act》中,金衡磅和英钱已失去了在英国的法定单位地位;仅金衡盎司及其十进制辅助单位仍具法定地位。金衡盎司在英国享有特殊的免除米制化英语Metrication的法律地位。[4]

英钱是贵金属估值和测量时的常见单位。珠宝商利用英钱来计算在制作珠宝时贵金属的使用量和成本。同时,牙医和牙科实验室也仍使用英钱来计量牙套和牙齿镶补所用的贵金属。[5]

英钱最常见的缩写是“dwt”,其中“d”源自罗马的迪纳厄斯(denarius),“d”在英国货币制度改为十进制之前是便士的缩写。英钱的其他缩写还有“pwt”和“PW”。

记重之外的用途[编辑]

尽管缩写相同,但本尼威特与便士钉的实际重量无关,而是指一百根钉子的价格。[6][7][8][9]

英钱与现行的便士硬币的重量也没有关系,如1982年后铸造的美国便士(一般称“美分”)每枚重达2.5g。[10]

换算[编辑]

单位 格令 英钱 盎司(金衡制) 磅(金衡制)
1 英钱 = 24 gr 1 dwt 120 oz 1240lb 1.55517384g

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ 换算关系:
    1 常衡盎司 = 437.5 格令
    1 金衡盎司 = 480 格令
  2. ^ 换算关系:
    1 金衡格令 = 0.06479891 克 (精确定义)
  3. ^ Zupko, Ronald Edward. A dictionary of weights and measures for the British Isles. American Philosophical Society. 1985: 280–84. ISBN 978-0-87169-168-2. 
  4. ^ Weights and Measures Act 1985. 2011-08-30 [2011-09-22]. Part II Weighing and Measuring for Trade ... 8 Units of measurement, weights and measures lawful for use for trade ... (2) No person shall use for trade—(a) the ounce troy, except for the purposes of transactions in, or in articles made from, gold, silver or other precious metals, including transactions in gold or silver thread, lace or fringe... 
  5. ^ Precious Metal Buyers, Gold Refiners, Gold Assayers, Waste Management. Precious metals calculator. Maguire & Strickland Refining. 2011-09-22 [2011-09-22]. This section is for those in the trade. Those in the trade include jewelers, dentists and dental laboratories who have a store front, State ID numbers and Federal ID numbers ... We do not list a dental estimating factor as there is no standard gold percentage for dental solids 
  6. ^ Penny (subscription required). Oxford English Dictionary 2nd. [2010-05-30]. Applied to nails, such adjectives denote the original price (in 15th c.) per hundred; as fivepenny nail, a nail which cost 5d. a hundred, tenpenny nail, a nail costing 10d. a hundred. (These names persisted after the prices fell, as they began to do in some places before 1500, and they were eventually used to designate sizes of nails.) 
  7. ^ H. Littlehales. Medieval Rec. London City Church. 1905Cited in the Oxford English Dictionary under "Penny" with a quote from 1426-1427. 
  8. ^ Penny. sizes.com. [2010-01-10]. 
  9. ^ Norman Scott Brien Gras. The Early English Customs System. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA). 1918: 701.  Cited at sizes.com with a quote from 1507.
  10. ^ Coin Specifications (table). About us. 美国铸币局. September 22 [September 22, 2011]. The following table gives specifications for The United States Mint legal tender coins presently in circulation