莧科

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莧科Infobox info icon.svg
化石时期:第三纪–現代
A splendens.jpg
紫莖牛膝Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata
科学分类 e
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支 维管植物 Tracheophyta
演化支 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
目: 石竹目 Caryophyllales
科: 莧科 Amaranthaceae
Juss., 1789
亞科

莧科[註 1](学名:Amaranthaceae)包括约1652040植物[1],多为草本灌木,稀有乔木藤本[2][3]

莧科广泛分布在全世界,一般分布在亚热带热带地区,但也有许多种也分布在温带甚至寒温带地区[2][3]

2003年的APG II 分类法藜科合并到苋科中来,两者的唯一区别是苋科被膜质,藜科附着粉状或皮屑状物;苋科蒴果,藜科胞果[2][3]

不包括藜科的苋科仅有65大约900,大部分生活在热带非洲北美洲,许多品种可以在盐碱地生长,有的品种是杂草,也有花卉品种。如鸡冠花千日红老来少[2][3]

苋科植物对生或互生,叶缘有齿,大部分无托叶。

屬列表[编辑]

亞科
苋亚科(Amaranthoideae) Achyranthes, Achyropsis, Aerva, Allmania, Allmaniopsis, Amaranthus, Arthraerua, Bosea, Calicorema, Celosia, Centema, Centemopsis, Centrostachys, Chamissoa, Charpentiera, Chionothrix, Cyathula, Dasysphaera, Deeringia, Digera, Eriostylos, Henonia, Herbstia, Hermbstaedtia, Indobanalia, Kelita, Kyphocarpa, Lagrezia, Lecosia, Leucosphaera, Lopriorea, Marcelliopsis,Mechowia, Nelsia, Neocentema, Nothosaerva, Nyssanthes, Omegandra, Pandiaka, Pleuropetalum, Pleuropterantha, Polyrhabda, Pseudosericocoma, Psilotrichopsis, Psilotrichum, Ptilotus, Pupalia, Rosifax, Saltia, Sericocoma, Sericocomopsis, Sericorema, Sericostachys, Stilbanhtus, Trichuriella, Volkensinia, Wadithamnus
白花苋亚科(Aervoideae)
牛膝亚科(Achyranthoideae)
青葙亚科(Celosioideae)
千日红亚科(Gomphrenoideae) Alternanthera, Blutaparon, Froelichia, Froelichiella, Gomphrena, Gossypianthus, Guilleminea, Hebanthe, Hebanthodes, Irenella, Iresine, Lithophila, Pedersenia, Pfaffia, Pseudogomphrena, Pseudoplantago, Quaternella, Tidestromia, Woehleria, Xerosiphon
甜菜亚科(Betoideae) Acroglochin, Aphanisma, Beta, Hablitzia, Oreobliton, Patellifolia
樟味藜亚科(Camphorosmoideae) Bassia, Camphorosma, Chenolea, Didymanthus, Dissocarpus, Enchylaena, Eokochia, Eremophea, Eriochiton, Grubovia, Maireana, Malacocera, Neobassia, Neokochia, Osteocarpum, Roycea, Sclerolaena, Sedobassia, Spirobassia, Threlkeldia
藜亚科(Chenopodioideae) Archiatriplex, Atriplex, Axyris, Baolia, Blitum, Ceratocarpus, Chenopodiastrum, Chenopodium, Cycloloma, Dysphania, Exomis, Extriplex, Grayia, Halimione, Holmbergia, Krascheninnikovia, Lipandra, Manochlamys, Microgynoecium, Micromonolepis, Oxybasis, Proatriplex, Spinacia, Stutzia, Suckleya, Teloxys
虫实亚科(Corispermoideae) Agriophyllum, Anthochlamys, Corispermum
多节草亚科(Polycnemoideae) Hemichroa, Nitrophila, Polycnemum, Surreya
盐角草亚科(Salicornioideae) Allenrolfea, Arthrocnemum, Halocnemum, Halopeplis, Halostachys, Heterostachys, Kalidium, Microcnemum, Salicornia, Sarcocornia, Tecticornia
猪毛菜亚科(Salsoloideae) Anabasis, Arthrophytum, Caroxylon, Climacoptera, Cornulaca, Cyathobasis, Fredolia, Girgensohnia, Halarchon, Halimocnemis, Halocharis, Halogeton, Halothamnus, Haloxylon, Hammada, Horaninowia, Iljinia, Kali, Kaviria, Lagenantha, Nanophyton, Noaea, Nucularia, Ofaiston, Petrosimonia, Piptoptera, Physandra, Pyankovia, Rhaphidophyton, Salsola, Sympegma, Traganum, Traganopsis, Turania, Xylosalsola
碱蓬亚科(Suaedoideae) Bienertia, Suaeda
待定 赤珠苋属(Bosea)、炬苋树属(Charpentiera)

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 「莧」,拼音xiàn注音ㄒ一ㄢˋ中古擬音ghrenh

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Byng, James W. The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa. 2016-05-20, 261 (3): 201. ISSN 1179-3163. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 林春吉. 台灣的水生與溼地植物 (M). 台北: 綠世界出版社. 2005. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Kai Müller; Thomas Borsch. Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae based on matK/trnK sequence data - Evidence from parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden: 66–102.