菲利克斯·拉维松-莫利安

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Felix Ravaisson-Mollien
Felix Ravaisson-Mollien.jpg
出生1813年10月23日
那慕爾, 法国
逝世1900年5月18日 (1900-05-19)(86歲)
巴黎, 法国
母校慕尼黑大学
机构雷恩大学
时代19世纪哲学
地区西方哲学
学派欧陆哲学
法国属灵主义
主要领域
形而上学
实证主义
著名思想
法语批判 折衷主义

让-加斯帕尔-菲利克斯·拉谢·拉维松-莫利安(法語:Jean-Gaspard-Félix Laché Ravaisson-Mollien法语:[ʁavɛsɔ̃ mɔljɛ̃];1813年10月23日-1900年5月18日),法国哲学家。 后人评价他“或许是19世纪下半叶法国最有影响力的哲学家”。[1] 他的原名是菲利克斯·拉维松,这也是他最广为人知的名字。[2]

他的“开创性的”“关键”著作是《论习惯》(De l’habitude,1838),英译本题为Of Habit。[3][4][5]拉维松的哲学属于法国属灵主义[6]传统,该传统始于曼恩·德·比朗(1766-1824)的文章《习惯对思想能力的影响》(The Influence of Habit on the Faculty of Thinking, 1802)。不过,拉维松把他的学说发展成了他所谓的“属灵主义的现实主义”(spiritualist realism)以及“属灵主义的实证主义”(spiritualist positivism)。

根据研究拉维松的学者马克·辛克莱(Mark Sinclair)的说法,可以认为,拉维松创立了“偶然性学派”。[7]

拉维松学说最著名、影响力最大的继承者是亨利·柏格森,后者可以说是将此哲学传统延续到了20世纪30年代,[8]尽管也可以认为“人生哲学”的这宗“血脉”于20世纪后期在吉尔·德勒兹那里有所回归。[9] 拉维松快三十岁时拒绝了雷恩大学的职位,此后也不曾在法国国立大学系统工作。[10] 在1838年,他受雇担任公共建设部的首席私人秘书,而后稳步走上高位,比如图书馆监察长,然后在卢浮宫当古典文物策展人。[11] 晚年获任法国哲学界评委会主席,这是个“相当有影响力的职位”。[12]

拉维松不仅是哲学家、古典学家、档案家和教育管理家,而且也是画家,以“拉谢”之名出展。

哲学工作[编辑]

在哲学上,他是维克多·库赞(Victor Cousin)的学派中的一员,在许多重要问题上都与他有过争论。在他看来,意识行为是所有知识的基础。意识的行动是意志的表现,而意志是智力生活的动力和创造力。上帝的理念是心灵的各种能力(faculties)在其对自然之中以及人之中的和谐的观察中所给出的累积起来的直觉。在19世纪后期,这种理论对法国的思辨哲学相当有影响。

著作[编辑]

拉维松“完整的”“三大”哲学著作是:

  • 《关于亚里士多德形而上学的随笔》Essai sur la métaphysique d'Aristote 两卷(1837 年和1846年);
  • 《论习惯》(DE L'habitudeOn Habit,1838);
  • 《关于19世纪法国哲学的报告》(Rapport sur la philosophie en France au XIXeme siècle,1867)。 [13] [14]

此外,拉维松还有许多“值得注意的文章”,例如

  • 《当代哲学》(“La Philosophie contemporaine”,“Contemporary Philosophy”,1840 年);
  • 《帕斯卡尔的哲学》(“La Philosophie de Pascale”,“Pascal's Philosophy”,1887 年);
  • 《形而上学与道德》(“Métaphysique et Morale”,“Metaphysics and Morals”,1893 年)。 [15]

他去世后,还“留下了一部重要遗作的片断,死后得以出版”,先是以《哲学遗嘱》(“Testament philosophique”)为题发表于《形而上学与道德评论》(Revue de métaphysique et de morale,“Philosophical Testament”,1901年),后来以扩充过的形式出版为《哲学遗嘱》(Testament philosophiquePhilosophical Testament,1933 年)。 [15] [16]

年份 标题 初版详情 英文标题 英文版出版详情
1834 De la Métaphysique d’Aristote Unpublished competition manuscript.[a]

Selections in De la nature à l’esprit, 2001.[b]
1837 Essai sur la Métaphysique d’Aristote [Vol. 1][c] Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1837.[d]
1838 De l’habitude Sorbonne doctoral thesis (primary).[e]

Paris: H. Fournier, 1838.[f]
Of Habit (1) Trans. C Carlisle & M Sinclair:[g] Of Habit, London & New York: Continuum, 2008.[h]

(2) Updated trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 31–58.[i]
1838 Speusippi de Primis Rerum Principiis Placita Qualia Fuisse Videantur ex Aristotele Sorbonne doctoral thesis (secondary) [In Latin].[j]

Translated into French in 2012.[k]
1840 "La Philosophie contemporaine: Fragments de philosophie par M. Hamilton" in La Revue des deux mondes, 1840, pp.397–427. "Contemporary Philosophy" Trans. J Dunham: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 59–84.[l]
1845 Essai sur la Métaphysique d’Aristote [Vol. 2][m] Paris: Joubert, 1845.
1854 De l’enseignement du dessin dans les lycées[n] Paris: Dupont, 1854. "The Art of Drawing According to Leonardo da Vinci"

[Part trans.][o]
Trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 145–58
1856 "Mémoire sur le Stoïcisme"[p] in Mémoires de l'Institut Impériale de France, Académie des Insciptions et Belle-Lettres, vol. XXI, 1857, pp. 1-94. "Essay on Stoicism" Trans. A Efal and M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 85-144.
1867 La Philosophie en France au XIXème siècle[q] Paris: Hachette, 1867.
1871 Venus de Milo [Version 1][r] Paris: Hachette, 1871.[s]
1875 Les classiques de l'art: modèles pour l'enseignemnet du dessin Paris: Rapilly, 1875[t]
1880 "Les monuments funéraires des Grecs"[u] in Revue politique et littéraire. Revue blue, 10 April 1880, vol. XVIII, pp. 963-70. "Greek Funerary Monuments" Trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 229-242.
1882 "L'enseignement du dessin d'après M. F. Ravaisson" in Dictionnaire de pedagogie et d'instruction primaire Vol. 1, 1882; Paris: Hachette, pp. 671-84.[v] "On the Teaching of Drawing"[w] Trans. T Viola and M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 159-188.
1887 "La Philosophie de Pascale" in La Revue des deux mondes 80, 1887, pp. 399–428. "Pascal’s Philosophy"[x] Trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 253–78.
1892 "Les mystères. Fragment d'une étude sur l'histoire des religions" in Revue politique et littéraire. Revue blue, 19 March 1892, pp. 362-6. "Mysteries: Fragment of a Study of the History of Religion"[y] Trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 243-252.
1892 La Venus de Milo [Version 2][z] in Mémoires de l'Académie des Insciptions et Belle-Lettres, vol. XXXIV, Part 1, 1892, pp. 145-256.

also as off-prints by Klincksieck: Paris, 1892.
"Venus de Milo"

[Part trans.][aa]
Trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 189-228.
1893 "Métaphysique et morale" in Revue de métaphysique et morale 1, 1893, 6–25.[bb] "Metaphysics and Morals" Trans. M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 279–94.
1901 "Testament philosophique" [Original][cc] Ed. Xavier Léon in Revue de métaphysique et de morale 9/1, 1901, pp. 1–31.
1933 Testament philosophique [Expanded][cc] Ed. Charles Devivaise. Paris: Boivin, 1933. "Philosophical Testament" Trans. J Dunham and M Sinclair: Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, 2016, pp. 295–336.
Notes

  • a ^ Sinclair in Being Inclined: 'In 1834' when 21 years of age, Ravaisson 'was the remarkably young laureate of a competition organized by the Académie des sciences morales et politiques on Aristotle's Metaphysics and its historical reception, with a dissertation - De la Métaphysique d’Aristote - that he would later publish in a revised and expanded form as Essai sur la Métaphysique d’Aristote [Volume 1] (1837).[17] See also Sinclair 'Introduction' in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[18]
  • b ^ Sinclair in Being Inclined: 'Long sections of' De la Métaphysique d’Aristote 'with the original pagination in the margins, are published in R. Belay and C. Marin, De la nature à l’esprit (Paris: ENS Editions, 2001), 201–13.'[19]
  • c ^ Revised and expanded version of Ravaisson's 1834 prize winning essay De la Métaphysique d’Aristote.[17]
  • d ^ See Sinclair in Being Inclined.[13]
  • e ^ See Sinclair in Being Inclined.[19]
  • f ^ See Sinclair's Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[20]
  • g ^ As well as translating the text, Carlisle and Sinclair also included two extensive supplements by way of an "Editors’ Introduction" and "Editors’ Commentary".[21] In addition, there is a long preface from Catherine Malabou titled "Addiction and Grace".
  • h ^ This publication is a bilingual edition of the text and presents both De l’habitude and the translation by Carlisle and Sinclair (Of Habit) on facing pages of the book. The French version is the Alcan edition of 1933.[22]
  • i ^ Sinclair writes that the translation has been modified since the original translation by Carlisle and himself a few years earlier in Félix Ravaisson Of Habit (London/New York: Continuum, 2008).[20]
  • j ^ See Sinclair in Being Inclined.[13]
  • k ^ Translated as La doctrine de Speusippe sur les premiers principes selon le témoignage d'Aristote in Cahiers Philosophiques (n°129, 2ème trimestre), 2012; pp. 68–96. Translation by Alain Petit, preceded by an introduction from Petit titled "Le symptôme Speusippe: le spectre de l’émanatisme dans la pensée métaphysique de Ravaisson" (2012).[23]
  • l ^ See also Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[24]
  • m ^ See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[25] Sinclair points out that this second volume developed (but did not repeat) work from his 1834 prize winning essay De la Métaphysique d’Aristote (1834) which had been revised and expanded in volume one (1837). Sinclair also mentions that a third and fourth volume were planned, but never came to fruition. In a footnote, however, Sinclair continues that Charles Devivaise 'published some of Ravaisson's work towards the third volume as Essai sur la Metaphysique d'Aristote: Fragments du Tome III (Paris: Vrin, 1953)'.[26]
  • n ^ This published text originally appeared as "Rapport addressé à M. le ministre de l’Instruction publique et des cultes" (28 December 1853).[20] See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[27]
  • o ^ This translation is of the first 'untitled' segment of the text.[20] In a footnote, Sinclair writes: 'For reasons of economy, I follow Dominique Janicaud in L'Art et les mystères grecs (Paris: L'Herne, 1985) in producing just the first section of the report, but I alter his title L'Art et le dessin d'après Léonard da Vinci.'[28]
  • p ^ Original version presented as a paper to the Académie des Insciptions et Belle-Lettres in 1849 then 1851; this version extended for publication. See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[29] Published in 1856 with a cover date of 1877.[20][30]
  • q ^ See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[31]
  • r ^ The first of two versions, the second reworked edition published in 1892. See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[32]
  • s ^ Publication details.[33]
  • t ^ Originally written in 1854, and not published for 20 years. See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[34] Sinclair also has a footnote with further details.[28]
  • u ^ See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[35]
  • v ^ This article was one of several that appeared under the heading "Dessin"; the volume was edited by Ferdinand Buisson.[20][36]
  • w ^ See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[27]
  • x ^ See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[37]
  • y ^ See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[38]
  • z ^ The second of two versions, the first edition was published in 1871, and was subsequently reworked in this much later publication. See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[32]
  • aa ^ The translation here is only part of the original article, the third and final section (pp. 188-256).[20]
  • bb ^ Specially commissioned lead essay for the first issue of the journal.[20] See Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[39]
  • cc ^ ^ Posthumous publications from notes:[16] see Sinclair's commentary in "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays.[40]

参考文献[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ "Sinclair (2019), p. 1
  2. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 1
  3. ^ "Carlisle (2010), p. 125
  4. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 1
  5. ^ "Grosz (2013), p. 219
  6. ^ “属灵主义”(Spiritualism,字面义:招魂术)和“唯灵论”(Spiritism,字面义:通灵术)涵义相近,区别是前者可能不相信轮回。https://connect.springerpub.com/content/book/978-0-8261-9934-8/chapter/ch17页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  7. ^ "Sinclair (2019), pp. 9-10
  8. ^ "Sinclair (2019), p. 1
  9. ^ "Grosz (2013), p. 219
  10. ^ "Sinclair (2019), p. 7
  11. ^ "Sinclair (2019), p. 8
  12. ^ "Sinclair (2019), p. 9
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Sinclair (2019), p. 6
  14. ^ "Carlisle & Sinclair (2008), pp. 4-5
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 "Carlisle & Sinclair (2008), p. 5
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 "Sinclair (2016), p. vii
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 "Sinclair (2019), p. 7
  18. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 2-3
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 "Sinclair (2019), p. xi
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 "Sinclair (2016), p. vi
  21. ^ "Carlisle & Sinclair (2008), pp. 1-21; 78-114
  22. ^ "Carlisle & Sinclair (2008), p. 20
  23. ^ Ravaisson, la doctrine de Speusippe sur les premiers principes selon le témoignage d'Aristote. Cahiers Philosophiques. 2012 [2020-04-05]. (原始内容存档于2022-06-22). 
  24. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 8-9
  25. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 3-4
  26. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 25
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 "Sinclair (2016), pp. 11-12
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 "Sinclair (2016), p. 27
  29. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 10-11
  30. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 11
  31. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 13-15
  32. ^ 32.0 32.1 "Sinclair (2016), pp. 15-18
  33. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 28
  34. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 12-13
  35. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 18
  36. ^ "Sinclair (2016), p. 12
  37. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 19-20
  38. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 18-19
  39. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 20-21
  40. ^ "Sinclair (2016), pp. 21-22

来源[编辑]

主要参考

  • Sinclair, Mark. Being Inclined: Félix Ravaisson’s Philosophy of Habit (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019)

次要参考

  • Carlisle, Clare. "Between Freedom and Necessity: Félix Ravaisson on Habit and the Moral Life", in Inquiry (43/2: 2010), pp. 123–45
  • Carlisle, Clare and Mark Sinclair. "Editors’ Introduction" and "Editors’ Commentary" in Félix Ravaisson Of Habit, translation, introduction, and commentary by Clare Carlisle and Mark Sinclair (London/New York: Continuum, 2008), pp. 1-21; 78-114
  • Grosz, Elizabeth. "Habit Today: Ravaisson, Bergson, Deleuze and Us", in Body and Society (19/2–3: 2013), pp. 217–39
  • Malabou, Catherine. "Addiction and Grace: Preface to Félix Ravaisson’s Of Habit" in Félix Ravaisson Of Habit, translation, introduction, and commentary by Clare Carlisle and Mark Sinclair (London/New York: Continuum, 2008), pp. vii-xx
  • Sinclair, Mark. "Introduction" in Félix Ravaisson: Selected Essays, edited by Mark Sinclair; translated by Jeremy Dunham, Adi Efal, Mark Sinclair, Tullio Viola (London: Bloomsbury, 2016), pp. 1-29