萊氏綠殭菌

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
萊氏綠殭菌
科学分类 编辑
界: 真菌界 Fungi
门: 子囊菌门 Ascomycota
纲: 糞殼菌綱 Sordariomycetes
目: 肉座菌目 Hypocreales
科: 麥角菌科 Clavicipitaceae
属: 黑殭菌屬 Metarhizium
种: 萊氏綠殭菌 M. rileyi
二名法
Metarhizium rileyi
(Farl.) Kepler, Rehner & Humber (2014)
異名

Nomuraea rileyi (Farl.) Samson (1974)[1]
Beauveria rileyi (Farl.) Gösswald 1939[2]
Spicaria rileyi (Farl.) Charles 1936[3]
Spicaria prasina (Maubl.) Sawada 1919[4]
Nomuraea prasina Maubl. 1903[5]
Botrytis rileyi Farl. 1883[4]

萊氏綠殭菌學名Metarhizium rileyi),又名莱氏野村菌萊氏野村黴,有時簡稱綠殭菌,是黑殭菌屬的一種蟲生真菌英语entomopathogenic fungus,可感染玉米穗蟲英语Heliothis zea番茄夜蛾英语Helicoverpa armigera甜菜斜紋夜蛾英语Spodoptera exigua草地貪夜蛾(秋行軍蟲)等超過60種鱗翅目昆蟲的幼蟲,而有用作生物農藥以抑制數種農業害蟲生長的潛力[6]。本種過去屬於野村黴屬英语NomuraeaNomuraea),2014年,一篇分子種系發生學研究結果顯示野村黴屬為複系群,並將本種該歸入黑殭菌屬[7][8]

感染過程[编辑]

萊氏綠殭菌感染昆蟲的過程可分為數個階段,其分生孢子疏水性,可結合於同為疏水性的昆蟲體表,孢子表面的多種水解酵素可分解昆蟲的表皮,並於環境適宜時萌發成菌絲,穿透昆蟲表皮而進入其體內。當菌絲長至昆蟲的血淋巴時,會形成許多芽孢體(hyphal bodies, hb),芽孢體可脫離菌絲,如酵母菌般在血淋巴中自由複製、生長,其細胞表面的病原相關分子模式不被昆蟲的吞噬細胞視為外來者,因此不會受到攻擊。當芽孢體的密度達到一閾值時,會透過群體感應使其會轉換回菌絲頂端生長(apical growth)的生長模式[9],形成菌絲體,同時可分泌多種酵素,在數小時內快速殺死宿主並分解其組織[10][11]

生物農藥[编辑]

萊氏綠殭菌可作為生物農藥,用以控制多種鱗翅目的農業害蟲。以萊氏綠殭菌控制草地貪夜蛾(秋行軍蟲)蟲害的生物農藥正在研製開發中[12]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Roskov Y., Kunze T., Orrell T., Abucay L., Paglinawan L., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Decock W., De Wever A., Didžiulis V. (ed). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.. Species 2000: Reading, UK. 2011 [22 July 2018]. 
  2. ^ Gösswald (1939) , In: Arb. biol. BundAnst. Land-u. Forstw. 22:434
  3. ^ Charles (1936) , In: Mycologia 28:398
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 CABI databases. [24 January 2013]. 
  5. ^ Maubl. (1903) , In: Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 19:296
  6. ^ Fronza, Edegar; Specht, Alexandre; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro. Metarhizium (Nomuraea) rileyi as biological control agent. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2017, 27 (11): 1243–1264. ISSN 0958-3157. doi:10.1080/09583157.2017.1391175. 
  7. ^ Ryan M. Kepler, Richard A. Humber, Joseph F. Bischoff & Stephen A. Rehner. Clarification of generic and species boundaries for Metarhizium and related fungi through multigene phylogenetics. Mycologia: 811-829. doi:10.3852/13-319. 
  8. ^ Metarhizium rileyi. MycoBank. 
  9. ^ Ann E. Hajek; David I. Shapiro-Ilan. Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases. Wiley. 27 October 2017: 632. ISBN 978-1-119-25601-4. 
  10. ^ Boucias, D.; Liu, S.; Meagher, R.; Baniszewski, J. Fungal dimorphism in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium rileyi: Detection of an in vivo quorum-sensing system. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology英语Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 2016, 136: 100–108. ISSN 0022-2011. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2016.03.013. 
  11. ^ Liu, Shouzhu; Xu, Zhimin; Wang, Xueying; Zhao, Lvquan; Wang, Guiqing; Li, Xuewen; Zhang, Leilei. Pathogenicity and in vivo Development of Metarhizium rileyi Against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology英语Journal of Economic Entomology. 2019. ISSN 0022-0493. doi:10.1093/jee/toz098. 
  12. ^ Grijalba, Erika Paola; Espinel, Carlos; Cuartas, Paola Emilia; Chaparro, Martha Liliana; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda. Metarhizium rileyi biopesticide to control Spodoptera frugiperda: Stability and insecticidal activity under glasshouse conditions. Fungal Biology. 2018, 122 (11): 1069–1076. ISSN 1878-6146. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2018.08.010.