萨克索·格拉玛提库斯

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萨克索, 丹麦裔挪威插画家路易斯·穆厄

萨克索•格拉玛提库斯 (c. 1150 – c. 1220), 又称Saxo cognomine Longus, 是丹麦史学家,神学家和作家。据说他曾任职过阿布萨隆大主教的神职人员或秘书,也是瓦爾德馬一世最看重的谋臣。丹麦的第一部通史《丹麦人的事迹》就是他的著作。

生平[编辑]

根据《日德兰半岛编年史》(Jutland Chronicle)的记载,萨克索出生在西兰岛(Danish: Sjælland )上。据推断,他出生于1150年后,并在1220年左右去世。他的名字“萨克索”(Saxo)是流行于中世纪丹麦的一个常见的名字。《日德兰半岛编年史》中尊称他为博学者萨克索 (Saxo Grammaticus),但《西兰岛编年史》则用高大的智者萨克索(Saxo cognomine Longus)来称呼他。

萨克索•格拉玛提库斯生活在战乱年代,那时大主教阿布萨隆和瓦尔德马国王正指挥着他的军队四处征战。丹麦人民同时还要抵御温兹(西斯拉夫)人的海上威胁。[1] 在Valdemar I 取得国民战争的胜利后不久,Valdemar II 又派出远征队入侵Elbe对岸的Holstein.[2]

丹麦贵族斯汶·奥吉森(Sven Aggesen)编撰了比萨克索稍早一些的丹麦历史。当他描写他所处的年代时,曾提及到萨克索,并称他为contubernalis,意为一起住帐篷的同伴。这表明萨克索和斯汶有可能一起在Hird或者皇家守卫里当过兵。人们在隆德大教堂的神职人员的名单里也发现了一个名叫萨克索的副主教(Archdeacon),但他于1190年逝世,与我们熟知的萨克索不符。

不论哪种观点,认为他是俗家的萨克索或者修道的萨克索,都证实了他是一个受过良好教育的人。身为神职人员要接受拉丁语的训练,且表现优异的子弟时常要被派往巴黎。萨克索生于一个军人家庭所以他自己也对军人这个身份表示认同。他告诉我们他

双方的观点都有,世俗和宗教盛宝,将确认他是受过良好教育,作为神职人员,他会接受培训在拉丁语和伟人的儿子经常被派往巴黎。[3]盛宝来自一个武士家庭和写道,他是致力于成为一个士兵。他告诉我们,他是“古代遗传服务的权利,”,他的父亲和祖父”是公认的著名陛下的常客(Valdemar I)战争阵营。”[4]

Saxo's education and ability supports the idea that he was educated outside of Denmark. Some suggest the title "Grammaticus" refers not to his education but rather his elaborate Latin style.[5] We know from his writing that he was in the retinue and received the patronage of Absalon, Archbishop of Lund, who was the foremost advisor to King Valdemar I. In his will Absalon forgives his clerk Saxo a small debt of two and a half marks of silver and tells him to return two borrowed books to the monastery of Sorø.[6] The legacy of Saxo Grammaticus is the sixteen book heroic history of the Danes called Gesta Danorum.

丹麦人的事迹[编辑]

In the preface to the work, Saxo writes that his patron Absalon, Archbishop of Lund had encouraged him to write a heroic history of the Danes. The history is thought to have been started about 1185, after Sven Aggesen wrote his history.[7] The goal of Gesta Danorum was as Saxo writes "to glorify our fatherland," which he accomplishes on the model of the Aeneid by Vergil.[8] Saxo also may have owed much to Plato, Cicero and also to more contemporary writers like Geoffrey of Monmouth.[9]

Saxo's history of the Danes was compiled from sources that are of questionable historical value. He drew on oral tales of the Icelanders, ancient volumes, letters carved on rocks and stone, and the statements of his patron Absalon concerning the history of which the Archbishop had been a part. Saxo's work was not strictly a history or a simple record of old tales, rather it was "a product of Saxo's own mind and times,"[10] he combines the history and mythology of the heroic age of Denmark and reworks it into his own story that exemplifies the past of the Danes.[11]

The history is composed of sixteen books and extends from the time of the founders of the Danish people, Dan I of Denmark and Angul into about the year 1187. The first four are concerned with the history of the Danes before Christ, the next four with the history after Christ, books 9-12 Christian Denmark and 13-16 promote Lund and the exploits early before and during Saxo's own lifetime.[12] It is assumed that the last eight books were written first, as Saxo drew heavily on Absalon's testament for evidence of the age of Saint Canute and Valdemar I and Archbishop Absalon died in 1202, before the work was completed.

The first eight volumes share a likeness with the works of the contemporary Snorri Sturluson. They deal with mythical elements such as giants and the Scandinavian pantheon of gods.[13] Saxo tells of Dan the first king of Denmark who had a brother named Angul who gave his name to the Angles.[7] He also tells the stories of various other Danish heroes, many who interact with the Scandinavian gods. Saxo's "heathen" gods however were not always good characters. They were sometimes treacherous such as in the story of Harald, legendary king of the Danes, who was taught the ways of warfare by Odinn and then was betrayed and killed by the god who then brought him to Valhalla.[14]

Saxo's world is seen to have had very warlike values. He glorifies the heroes that made their names in battle far more than those who made peace. His view of the period of peace under King Frode was very low and was only satisfied when King Knut brought back the ancestral customs.[15] Saxo's chronology of kings extends up to Saint Canute and his son Valdemar I.

Of particular interest for Shakespeare scholars is the story of Amleth, the first instance of Hamlet. Saxo based the story on an oral tale[16] of a son taking revenge for his murdered father. Saxo finished the history with the Preface, which he wrote last, about 1216[17] under the patronage of Anders Sunesen who replaced Absalon as Archbishop of Lund. Saxo included in the preface warm appreciation of both Archbishops and of the reigning King Valdemar II.[18]

历史贡献[编辑]

Christiern Pedersen, a Canon of Lund, collaborated with Jodocus Badius Ascendius, a fellow enthusiast, to print the work of Saxo Grammaticus early in the sixteenth century. This was the first major step toward securing historical significance for Gesta Danorum. It was from that point that it began to spread amongst the academic community.[19] Oliver Elton who was the first to translate the first nine books of Gesta Danorum into English wrote that Saxo was the first writer produced by Denmark.

Saxo's skill as a Latinist was praised by Erasmus, who wondered at how "a Dane of that age got so great power of eloquence"[19] later R. W. Chambers would call it "a difficult and bombastic, but always amusing Latin".[20] There have also been several attempts to understand his style of Latin and place it in history to glean more information about where he may have been educated. Some have considered Saxo's Latin to have more in common with legal training than ecclesiastical[6] and his poetry is thought to have traces of parallelism.[21]

He is also seen by modern Danes as their first national historian.[22] His works were received enthusiastically by Renaissance scholars who were curious about pre-Christian history and legends. Saxo's account of history has been seen to differ greatly from that of his contemporaries, especially between his account and those of Norwegians and Icelanders in that the titles of hero and villain switch between the characters of the various nationalities. There are even differences between Saxo's work, and that of fellow Danish historian Sven Aggesen.

These differences often are the result of elaboration on the part of Saxo. His account of the tale of Thyri for example is far more fantastic and blown up than the tale that Sven presents and for this stylization and elaboration of the facts Saxo's history has often been criticized.[23] Saxo's inclusion of Amleth is the most significant part of the Gesta Danorum, however the work also has value in its description of the canonization of Canute and further in comparison to Snorri, whose work shares many characters and stories, creating a better understanding of pre-Christian Scandinavia.

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Westergaard p. 167
  2. ^ Fisher v.2 p. 20
  3. ^ Davidson p. 9-11
  4. ^ Fisher v.1 p. 6
  5. ^ Davidson p. 1
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Davidson p. 10
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Jones p. 44
  8. ^ Fisher v.1 p. 2-4
  9. ^ Davidson p. 6-9
  10. ^ Friis-Jensen p. 198
  11. ^ Westergaard p. 168
  12. ^ Christiansen p. 383
  13. ^ Dumézil p. 78-79
  14. ^ Jones p. 53
  15. ^ Malone p. 96
  16. ^ Muir p. 370
  17. ^ Davidson p.12
  18. ^ Fisher v.1 p. 1
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Davidson p. 3
  20. ^ Quoted in C. Tolkien ed, J. R. R. Tolkien: Beowulf (2015) p. 154
  21. ^ Amory p. 702
  22. ^ Davidson p. 2
  23. ^ Sawyer p. 14-16

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