葉海牛科

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葉海牛科
Phyllidia.jpg
Phyllidia varicosa, head end on the left in this image
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
目: 裸鰓類 Nudibranchia
亚目: 海牛亞目 Doridina
下目: 海牛下目 Doridoidei
总科: 葉海牛總科 Phyllidioidea
科: 葉海牛科 Phyllidiidae
Rafinesque, 1814
模式属
葉海牛屬英语Phyllidia Phyllidia

見內文

葉海牛科(學名:Phyllidiidae),又名葉海麒麟科[1],是裸鰓目海牛亞目海牛下目葉海牛總科之下其中一個多彩海蛞蝓,是一類海洋腹足綱軟體動物[2][3][4]

根據2005年的《布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類》,本科被歸類於有角鰓類海牛亞支序[3];在2017年的《布歇特等人的腹足類分類》,本科被歸類於海牛下目[4]

分布[编辑]

大多數本科物種生存於熱帶印度洋-太平洋海域,但有少數本科物種發現於大西洋與地中海

型態描述[编辑]

這些橢圓形的裸鰓類生物的外套膜在其背腹方向壓扁了,而其背部的表面也覆蓋了硬硬和有顏色的結節英语Tubercle#In_animals。 This mantle is decorated with contrasting colors and patterns as warning signals to predators. The lamellate rhinophores can be retracted. Like other dorid nudibranchs, all species have a dorsal anus, except for the species in the genus Fryeria where the anus is posteroventral and protrusible.[5] In contrast with the other nudibranchs from the clade Doridacea, the species in this family lack buccal armature, i. e. radulae and jaws. The gill leaflets are situated along the ventral area and to the side (= ventrolateral ) instead of consisting of a dorsomedian (= along the middle line of the upper surface) circlet . The oral glands, which are closely associated with the pharynx and contained in the oral tube, and the stomach have undergone modifications. The female part in the reproductive system of these hermaphroditic snails has two separate openings and the male part one. This is called a triaulic reproductive system. It corresponds to the same triaulic condition of the advanced dorids.

Most phyllidiids appear in their natural context during day time in a conspicuous way and are thus exposed to their predators. However their colors are warning signals indicating special capabilities to deter predators, such as bioactive chemical defense. This phenomenon is called aposematism. During observations, only one species was found to be always hidden: Phyllidiopsis cardinalis Bergh.[6]

攝食習慣[编辑]

There are not many reports on the ecology and the feeding habits of these nudibranchs. As their small mouth lacks a radula and other buccal hard parts, they are known as predators adapted for sucking on sponges. Phyllidia varicosa has been observed feeding on a sponge of the genus Hymeniacidon. Phyllidia flava has been reported feeding on the sponge Acanthella acuta.

分類學[编辑]

The original spelling was denoted as family Phyllidia. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck coined the words "les Phyllidiens" and "les phyllidéens" (1801; 1809). These were later Latinized by J.G. Children (1823) [7] to Phyllidiana, who put them in Hydrobranchiae.[8] The present name Phyllidiidae is now attributed to Rafinesque and not to Lamarck.

There has been much confusion in the taxonomy of this family, largely caused by inadequate early descriptions and the difficulties of classifying a family where the species all lack radulae. David J. Brunckhorst in his paper "The Systematics and Phylogeny of Phyllidiid Nudibranchs (Doridoidea)" reviewed this family and clarified the status of many species as well as describing new species and a genus.[9] Phylogenetic analysis through cladistics shows that the family Phyllidiidae is monophyletic. The phylogenetic tree shows that Ceratophyllidia is sister to the rest of the family and Phyllidiopsis sister to the remaining genera, Phyllidiella sister to the remaining genera, and Reticulidia sister to Phyllidia and Fryeria.[10] This analysis was not entirely supported by a study using the 16S gene.[11] The family contains many undescribed species which are being revealed by DNA analyses.[12]

[编辑]

本科包括下列五個屬,合共超過80個物種,分別如下:

異名
  • Fryeria Gray, 1853 : synonym of Phyllidia Cuvier, 1797
  • Reyfria Yonow, 1986: synonym of Phyllidia Cuvier, 1797

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 譚天錫; 白振宇; 夏國經. 台灣沿海產裸鰓目軟體動物相的分布調查. 貝類學報 (中華民國貝類學會). 1987, 13: 71–90 (中文(繁體)‎). 
  2. ^ WoRMS. Phyllidioidea Rafinesque, 1814. World Register of Marine Species. [2018-05-16]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.P.; Hausdorf, B.; Kaim    , A.; Kano    , Y.; Nützel  , A.; Parkhaev, P.; Schrödl, M.; Strong  , E.E. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 2017, 61 (1-2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201 (英语). 
  5. ^ Bergh, L.S.R., 1875. Neue Beitrage zur Kentniss der Phyllidiaden. Verhandlungen der zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft 25: 659-674.
  6. ^ Brunckhorst, D.J. Do phyllidiid nubranchs demonstrate behaviour consistent with their apparent warning coloration?—some field observations. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 1991, 57 (4): 481–489 [2010-02-01]. doi:10.1093/mollus/57.4.481. 
  7. ^ J.G. Children. Lamarck's genera of shells. Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and the Arts. 1822–1824,. 14,15,16. 
  8. ^ Crouch, Edmund A. An illustrated introduction to Lamarck's conchology : contained in his "Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres" : being a literal translation of the descriptions of the recent and fossil genera.. London: Longman. 1827: 25. 
  9. ^ Brunckhorst D. J. The Systematics and Phylogeny of Phyllidiid Nudibranchs (Doridoidea). Australia: Records of the Australian Museum, supplement 16. 1993: 1–107. ISBN 0-7310-0065-X. 
  10. ^ Valdés A (2002) A phylogenetic analysis and systematic revision of the cryptobranch dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Anthobranchia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 535–636. doi: 10.1046/j.1096-3642.2002.00039.x
  11. ^ Valdés A (2003) Preliminary molecular phylogeny of the radula-less dorids (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), based on 16S mtDNA sequence data. Journal of Molluscan Studies 69: 75–80. doi: 10.1093/mollus/69.1.75
  12. ^ Stoffels B.E., van der Meij S.E., Hoeksema B.W., van Alphen J., van Alen T., Meyers-Muñoz M.A., de Voogd N.J., Tuti Y., van der Velde G., (2016). Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllidiidae (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia). ZooKeys, (605):1-35

外部連結[编辑]