葵花籽

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向日葵種籽
向日葵種籽

葵花籽,又称葵瓜子,是指向日葵果实 (連殼)或種子(去殼後)。顏色有黑色白色褐色,大部份种子都是多色於一体。

可以做為零食瓜子,也可以榨油,葵花籽油可以用來煮菜,而且含有不飽和脂肪酸約90%,也是種很多人都認為健康的食用油

食用[编辑]

成份[编辑]

以100公克中,泰半是脂肪,主要是單元不飽和脂肪多元不飽和脂肪,其中亞油酸(亞麻油酸)所佔比例為高。此外,種子含有可能有助於降低血脂(血液膽固醇[1])水平的植物固醇


乾燥向日葵籽仁
每100 g(3.5 oz)食物營養值
2,445 kJ(584 kcal)
20 g
2.62 g
膳食纖維 8.6 g
51.46 g
飽和脂肪 4.455 g
單元不飽和脂肪 18.528 g
多元不飽和脂肪 23.137 g
20.78 g
維生素
硫胺(維生素B1
(129%)
1.48 mg
核黃素(維生素B2
(30%)
0.355 mg
菸鹼酸(維生素B3
(56%)
8.335 mg
(23%)
1.13 mg
吡哆醇維生素B6
(103%)
1.345 mg
葉酸(維生素B9
(57%)
227 μg
膽鹼
(11%)
55.1 mg
維生素C
(2%)
1.4 mg
維生素E
(234%)
35.17 mg
膳食礦物質
(8%)
78 mg
(40%)
5.25 mg
(92%)
325 mg
(93%)
1.95 mg
(94%)
660 mg
(14%)
645 mg
(1%)
9 mg
(53%)
5 mg
Link to USDA Database entry[2][3]
參照美國標準的相對百分比
成人每日的膳食營養素參考攝取量英语Dietary Reference Intakes(RDI)
來源:(英文)美國農業部營養数据库

壓榨油[编辑]

主條目:葵花籽植物油英语Sunflower oil葵花籽醬英语Sunflower butter

原生向日葵油(亞油酸向日葵油)包含高不飽和脂肪酸(約68%的亞油酸)和低飽和脂肪酸(如棕櫚酸硬脂酸)。然而因種種目的,開發各混種,以改變作物的脂肪酸譜。[4]

與其他植物油的比較[编辑]

植物油[5][6]
类别 氫化 飽和
脂肪酸
單元不飽和脂肪酸 多元不飽和脂肪酸 發煙點
總量(單元)[5] 油酸
(ω-9)
總量(多元)[5] α-亞麻酸
ω-3
亚油酸
(ω-6)
鳄梨[7] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 249 °C(480 °F)[8]
油菜(芥花油)[9] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C(460 °F)[10]
椰子[11] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C(347 °F)[10]
玉米胚芽[12] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58

232 °C(450 °F)[13]

棉籽[14] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C(420 °F)[13]
亞麻籽[15] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13

107 °C(225 °F)

大麻籽[16] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0

166 °C(330 °F)[17]

油橄欖[18] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C(380 °F)[10]
油棕[19] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C(455 °F)
花生[20] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C(450 °F)[13]
红花籽[21] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C(414 °F)[10]
大豆[22] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C(460 °F)[13]
葵花籽(亞油酸 < 60%)[23] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8

227 °C(440 °F)[13]

葵花籽 ( 油酸 > 70% ) [24] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6

227 °C(440 °F)[13]

棉籽[25] 氢化 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
油棕[26] 氢化 88.2 5.7 0
大豆[27] 部份氢化 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
每100公克佔總油脂重量的百分比(%)數值

参见[编辑]

參考來源[编辑]

引用
  1. ^ blood cholesterol - 血膽固醇. 國家教育研究院雙語詞彙. [2017-09-04]. 
  2. ^ C. 堅果及種子類衛生福利部食品藥物管理署,2003-06-09
  3. ^ 食物營養成分資料馬偕紀念醫院
  4. ^ National Sunflower Association : Sunflower Oil. Sunflowernsa.com. [2011-03-27] (英语). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 US National Nutrient Database, Release 28. United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016.  除非另加標注此列數據取自 the USDA Nutrient database
  6. ^ 每100克脂肪和脂肪酸含量(click for "more details") 例如: avocado oil; 用戶可以搜索其他油類. Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014 [7 September 2017].  數值取自 Nutritiondata.com (SR 21)可能需要與2017年9月美國農業部SR 28的最新版本保持一致。
  7. ^ Avocado oil 鱷梨油,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  8. ^ What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?, The American Oil Chemists’ Society
  9. ^ Canola oil 菜籽油,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils. Food Chemistry. 2010, 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070. 
  11. ^ Coconut oil 椰子油,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  12. ^ Corn oil 玉米油,工業和零售,多用途沙拉或烹飪,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Wolke, Robert L. Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer. The Washington Post. May 16, 2007 [March 5, 2011]. 
  14. ^ Cottonseed oil 棉籽油,沙拉或蒸煮,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  15. ^ Flaxseed/Linseed oil 亞麻籽/亞麻籽油,冷榨,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  16. ^ Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis.. Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2005 [25 October 2017]. 
  17. ^ https://www.veghealth.com/nutrition-tables/Smoke-Points-of-Oils-table.pdf
  18. ^ Olive oil 橄欖油,沙拉或烹飪,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  19. ^ Palm oil 棕櫚油,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  20. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  21. ^ Safflower oil 紅花油,沙拉或烹飪,高油酸,初級商業,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  22. ^ Soybean oil 大豆油,沙拉或蒸煮,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  23. ^ Sunflower oil 葵花籽油,不到60%的總脂肪作為亞油酸,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  24. ^ Sunflower oil, high oleic 葵花籽油,高油酸 - 70%或更高的油酸,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  25. ^ Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated工業用棉籽油,完全氫化,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  26. ^ Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat棕櫚油,工業,完全氫化,填充脂肪,脂肪成分,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
  27. ^ Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated) 大豆油,沙拉或蒸煮,(部分氫化),脂肪組合物,100克. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016 [6 September 2017]. 
書目
  • 歐陽英:《生機食療實務大全》,躍昇文化出版社,初版16刷2002年12月。
  • 時報國際◎企劃製作:《堅果萬歲》,時報國際廣告股份有限公司,初版2006年2月。