蜱蟎亞綱

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蜱蟎亞綱
化石時期: Early Devonian–Recent
Peacock mite (Tuckerella sp.),false-colour SEM, magnified 260×
Peacock mite (Tuckerella sp.),
false-colour SEM, magnified 260×
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 節肢動物門 Arthropoda
亞門: 螯肢亞門 Chelicerata
綱: 蛛形綱 Arachnida
亞綱: 蜱螨亞綱 Acari
Leach, 1817
總目

以及text

Acari (or Acarina) are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The diversity of the Acari is extraordinary and its fossil history goes back to at least the early Devonian period.[1] As a result, acarologists (the people who study mites and ticks) have proposed a complex set of taxonomic ranks to classify mites. In most modern treatments, the Acari is considered a subclass of Arachnida and is composed of two or three superorders or orders: Acariformes (or Actinotrichida), Parasitiformes (or Anactinotrichida), and Opilioacariformes; the latter is often considered a subgroup within the Parasitiformes. The monophyly of the Acari is open to debate, and the relationships of the acarines to other arachnids is not at all clear.[2] In older treatments, the subgroups of the Acarina were placed at order rank, but as their own subdivisions have become better-understood, it is more usual to treat them at superorder rank.

Most acarines are minute to small (e.g., 0.08~1.00毫米或0.003~0.039英寸), but the largest Acari (some ticks and red velvet mites) may reach lengths of 10~20毫米(0.4~0.8英寸). Over 50,000 species have been described (as of 1999) and it is estimated that a million or more species may exist. The study of mites and ticks is called acarology (from Greek ἀκαρί/ἄκαρι, akari, a type of mite; and -λογία, -logia),[3] and the leading scientific journals for acarology include Acarologia, Experimental and Applied Acarology and the International Journal of Acarology.

蜱蟎亞綱Acari)是節肢動物蛛形綱下的一個分類元,原為蜱螨目(Acarina),現時升格成為一個亞綱。本分類元有30,000左右的物種,包括了盲蛛疥瞒恙螨寄螨等物種,體型大多數比較細小,即使是最大的,也只有1cm的大小。一般需要使用顯微鏡才能觀察[4]

特徵[编辑]

蜱蟎亞綱動物可分為吸血性及非吸血性兩種。頭胸部腹部通常是一整塊,分節不明顯。在頭胸部有4對步足及一對觸肢、在口部有螯肢

外部型態[编辑]

  • 體型微小,身體區分為頭胸部與腹部,大部分種類會寄生於昆蟲、畜、人、植物上。
  • 頭胸部有四對腳和一對觸肢。

分類[编辑]

蜱螨目有30,000左右的物種,牠們的分類到現在還未有一個共識:儘管大多數研究學者都認同這個目可以獨立成為一個亞綱,但亦有不少人認為牠們只是蛛形綱下的一個目。蜱螨目的二分法(真螨形、寄螨形)亦是分類的主流,分歧的只是在分類樹的位置,但亦有部份人把盲蛛類從寄螨類獨立出來。以下為現時較常見的分類:

Rust mite (size: 50 微米)
Male tick (size: 2 mm)

經濟重要性[编辑]

蜱蟎對經濟最重大的影響,當以對農作物的損害最大,尤其是葉蟎科(Tetranychidae)的各個物種,還有叶爪螨科(Penthaleidae)、跗线螨科(Tarsonemidae)及節蜱科(Eriophyidae)的部分物種。

另外,本分類的部分寄生性物種會令人類或其他哺乳類動物染病。這些物種的叮咬或排泄物可令宿主染上節足類動物所傳播的疾病[4]。舉例說:遠足者有時會患上的叢林斑疹傷寒,便是由野外的蜱蟎叮咬而引致。

不過,本分類還有對經濟有裨益的物種。中氣門目Mesostigmata)雖然是寄蟎總目之下的一個分類元[7][8][6][9],但其實大多數物種都不是寄生動物,而是自由生活、甚至是捕食性動物。本目現時有約五千種屬於掠食性生物品種,隐居在軟土、垃圾堆、腐木、糞便、腐肉、鳥巢或家居的塵埃裡。當中植綏蟎捕植蟎科Phytoseiidae[10])佔約15%,被用於生物控制,並取得重大成就(見野草條目)。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ David Evans Walter, Gerald Krantz & Evert Lindquist. Acari. The Mites. Tree of Life Web Project. December 13, 1996 [June 21, 2010]. 
  2. ^ Garwood, Russell J.; Dunlop, Jason A. Three-dimensional reconstruction and the phylogeny of extinct chelicerate orders. PeerJ. 2014, 2: e641 [June 15, 2015]. doi:10.7717/peerj.641. 
  3. ^ D. E. Walter & H. C. Proctor. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. University of NSW Press, Sydney and CABI, Wallingford. 1999. ISBN 0-86840-529-9. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 老鼠身上的外寄生蟲 (PDF). 防治蟲鼠簡訊 (食物環境衛生署防治蟲鼠事務諮詢組). 2007-10, (第八期) [2016-05-18] (中文(繁體)‎). 
  5. ^ Gerald W. Krantz, David E. Walter (编). A Manual of Acarology 3rd edition. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press. 2009. ISBN 978-0-89672-620-8 (英文). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 FRÉDÉRIC BEAULIEU, ASHLEY P.G. DOWLING, HANS KLOMPEN, GILBERTO J. DE MORAES & DAVID EVANS WALTER. Superorder Parasitiformes Reuter, 1909 (PDF). (编) Zhang, Z.-Q. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (PDF). Zootaxa (Magnolia Press). 2011: 123-128. ISBN 978-1-86977-850-7. ISSN 1175-5334 (英文). 
  7. ^ David Evans Walter (编). Ameroseiidae Species Listing. Biology Catalog. Texas A&M University. [2010-08-29] (英文). 
  8. ^ 何琦琛; 馬立名; 王順成; 劉小如. 臺灣美綏蟎科一新種和五新紀錄種 (蜱蟎亞綱:中氣門目) (PDF). 台灣昆蟲. 2010, 30: 167–177 [2016-03-17] (中文(繁體)‎). 
  9. ^ Lindquist, E.E.; Krantz, G.W.; Walter, D.E. Chapter 8 Classification and Chapter 12 Order Mesostigmata. (编) Krantz G.W. & Walter D.E. A Manual of Acarology 3rd Edition. Lubbock: Texas Tech. University Press. 2009 (英文). 
  10. ^ 捕植蟎科. TaiBNET. [2016-01-19] (中文(繁體)‎). 

外部連結[编辑]