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蝙蝠侠 (漫画书)

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蝙蝠侠
《蝙蝠侠》漫画第一期封面.jpg
《蝙蝠侠》漫画第一期封面 (1940年春季刊); 由 鲍勃·凯恩杰瑞·罗宾逊绘制.
出版信息
出版社 DC漫画
周期
版式 连载系列
风格 超级英雄
出版时间
发行期数
主要角色 蝙蝠侠
"蝙蝠家族"
创作团队
作者
铅笔画
钢笔画
着色师
全集
《Dark Knight Archive Volume 1》 ISBN 1-56389-050-X
中国大陸 蝙蝠侠
港臺 蝙蝠俠

蝙蝠侠》(英语:Batman)是一部正在连载的美国系列漫画,以DC漫画超级英雄蝙蝠侠为主角。 该角色首次出现在《侦探漫画》第27期(1939年5月)。 蝙蝠侠是如此的受欢迎,以至于DC决定为他开启一个独立的连载系列,并于1940年春季开始出版。[2][3]它是第一次宣传是在1940年4月初,就在他的新伙伴神奇小子罗宾出场一个月后。

《蝙蝠侠》漫画最初是作为季刊发行的,但后来在20世纪50年代末成为双月刊,之后又成为月刊,此后一直如此。2011年9月,新52重启改变了DC漫画宇宙的连续性。在这个新的时间线上《蝙蝠侠》重新推出了新的第一期。

2016年,DC漫画开始的第二次期号重开,新系列标题为DC重生。2016年8月开始的第3辑蝙蝠侠为半月刊连载。

出版的历史[编辑]

黄金时代[编辑]

1939年5月,蝙蝠侠首次出现在《侦探漫画》第27期中。1940年春,《蝙蝠侠》第1期发行并在蝙蝠侠的故事中引入了新角色,其中最着名的是猫女和蝙蝠侠的宿敌:小丑。[4]并在第16期介绍了阿尔弗雷德,韦恩家的管家。[5]

编辑惠特尼·埃尔斯沃思在1941年将《蝙蝠侠》的故事分配给了画师迪克·肖普。[6]由于预料到鲍勃·凯恩将被征召参加第二次世界大战,DC预存了肖普的工作以防止延误。肖普第一次在《蝙蝠侠》上的工作是蝙蝠侠第18期的封面。[7]肖普第一个原创的蝙蝠侠故事工作,出现在蝙蝠侠第19期。他画了封面和前三个故事,并为第四个故事做了铅笔稿由诺姆·法伦描线。[8]像所有那时蝙蝠侠作家,肖普只能作为凯恩的”影子画师“。

在这个时代首次亮相的恶棍包括第49期(1948年10月)的疯帽匠和第63期(1951年2月)的杀手蛾。[9][10]1953年,谢尔登·莫多夫成为另一个主要的蝙蝠侠”影子画师“,他与温·莫蒂默和迪克·肖普一起,在凯恩的监督下按照凯恩的风格,创作出了一些署名为鲍勃·凯恩的故事[11]1955年6月在第92期中比尔·芬格和莫多夫引入了蝙蝠猎犬艾斯。[12]

白银时代[编辑]

漫画迷和历史学家都知道蝙蝠侠在白银时代曾大量涉足科幻故事。[13]此时期新加入的角色包括冷冻先生和最初代的蝙蝠女孩——贝蒂凯恩。[14][15]

1964年,尤利乌斯·施瓦茨被任命为《蝙蝠侠》系列负责人。他抛弃了许多搞笑角色如蝙蝠女侠、蝙蝠猎犬、蝙蝠小子等。由《侦探漫画》第327期(1964年五月)开始,漫画封面标示了“新面貌”。[16][17]施瓦茨负责的第一个蝙蝠侠故事是在1964年6月,由法国作家爱德华·赫伦创作,由谢尔顿·莫多夫画作。[18][19]谜语人在消失了18 年后在第171期(1965年5月)归来。[20]毒藤女就是在在第181期创作的新恶棍。[21]1966年开播的蝙蝠侠电视系列剧对蝙蝠侠这个人物本身有着极为深远的影响。影集中像蝙蝠女孩的角色与影集中夸张滑稽的风格被带入了漫画之中。在蝙蝠侠电视节目的影响力逐渐减弱后,编剧弗兰克·罗宾斯和画师伊弗·诺维克在故事中让迪克·格雷森去上大学,并在第217期(1969年12月)中让蝙蝠侠离开韦恩庄园。[22]

1970年代[编辑]

1971年,编剧丹尼斯·奥尼尔和画师尼尔·亚当斯接手了《蝙蝠侠》并决定开将蝙蝠侠带回40年代的黑暗起源。 [23]奥尼尔和亚当斯介绍了一个名叫拉斯奥古的新反派,并且还让小丑回归到他的本源,成为会因为一时兴起而杀人的一个疯子。[24][25][26][27]《蝙蝠侠》第237期(1971年12月)展示了奥尼尔和亚当斯的超虚构故事,在佛蒙特州拉特兰举行的拉特兰万圣节游行上,几位漫画创作者出现在故事中,并与蝙蝠侠和罗宾互动。[28]奥尼尔说他的想法是“简单地把它带回起点。我去DC的图书馆读了一些早期的故事。我试着了解凯恩和芬格在追求什么。”[29]漫画历史学家莱斯·丹尼尔斯观察到,奥尼尔对蝙蝠侠的解读是复仇的强迫症,他谦虚地将其描述为回归本源,实际上是一种创造性的想象行为,它影响了每一个后续版本的黑暗骑士。[30]第254期(1974年1月-2月)至第261期(1975年3-4月)系列采用100页的超大号格式。[31]1978年6月,《蝙蝠侠》系列达到了第300期,并由作家大卫·弗恩·里德、艺术家沃尔特·西蒙森和迪克·佐丹奴共同创作[32][33]莱恩·温在第307期(1979年1月)开始成为该系列写脚本,在他的第一期连载中,他创造了卢修斯·福克斯,后来摩根·弗里曼在电影《蝙蝠侠:开战时刻》《蝙蝠侠:黑暗骑士》,《蝙蝠侠:黑暗骑士崛起》中饰演了他。[34]朱利叶斯·施瓦茨在第 309期(1979年3月)结束了他的编辑生涯。

1980年代[编辑]

马福·沃夫曼曾在第331期(1981年1月)短暂地写过《蝙蝠侠》,并参与创作了闪电人。[35]罗伊·托马斯也有过短暂的参与。[36][37]编剧杰瑞·康威和画师唐·牛顿在《蝙蝠侠》第357期(1983年3月)中引入了杰森·托德。[38]之后托德在第368期(1984年2月)中担任罗宾。[39][40]编剧道格·莫许在第360期开始接手创作,他和画师汤姆·曼德雷克在《蝙蝠侠》第386期((1985年8月)中创造了黑面具这个角色。[41][42][43]莫许的长期合作伙伴,艺术家保罗·古鲁西的DC漫画处女作是个两期的故事,分别在《蝙蝠侠》第393期和第394期。[44][45]1986年10月,这《蝙蝠侠》连载到了第400期,并由几位流行漫画艺术家创作,其中包括小说家史蒂芬·金的引言。[46]

在《无限地球危机》后DC漫画的连续性被改变了。旧角色有机会被重新介绍。虽然《蝙蝠侠》系列没有重启,但在蝙蝠侠404到407期连载的“第一年”故事线中法兰克·米勒与画家大卫·马索伽利合作为蝙蝠侠这个人物的起源作重新的设定。故事《蝙蝠侠:第一年》因其对蝙蝠侠起源的真实演绎以及对从未读过蝙蝠侠系列的新读者的易于理解而广受好评。[47] IGN漫画将“第一年”排在了前25位最伟大的蝙蝠侠漫画小说之首,称“在此之前或之后,没有任何一本书能如此完美地捕捉到戈登和蝙蝠侠的现实主义、勇气和人性。”[48] 著名的漫画作家格雷格·卢卡, 杰夫·勒布和朱迪·维尼克都把“第一年”作为他们最喜欢的故事。[49] 在“第一年”之后,编剧马克斯·艾伦·柯林斯和画师克里斯·华纳为杰森·托德创作了一个新的起源。[50] 之后吉姆·斯达林成为了《蝙蝠侠》的作者,他的第一个故事情节是第417-420期(1988年3月- 6月)的《十野兽之夜》,带来了新反派KGB野兽。[51] 在斯达林任职期间,DC漫画公司开始意识到粉丝群对杰森·托德角色日益不满的态度。在角色的生命垂危之后,DC推出电话投票,让读者决定杰森的生死。最终以72票的微弱差距决定了杰森的死。一个月之后,这个角色在故事中死亡。这个故事题为“家中亡故”,由于一个熟悉的角色的生命以惊人的结局而告终,因此受到了高度媒体曝光。[52] 作家马尔夫沃尔夫曼和艺术家帕特布罗德里克在第436期“蝙蝠侠:第三年”的故事中创造了蒂雷·德雷克的,并让这个角色在第442期的故事”孤独死亡之所”的故事情节中成为了第三代罗宾。[53]

1990年代[编辑]

部分受到1989年蒂姆•伯顿执导的电影《蝙蝠侠》的影响,20世纪90年代的漫画作品基调更为阴暗。蒂姆·德雷克版的罗宾在艾伦·格兰特和诺姆·布里福格尔创作的第457期(1990年12月)中得到了尼尔·亚当斯设计的新服装。[54]20世纪90年代,蝙蝠侠系列的主要作者是格兰特、道格·莫许和查克·狄克逊。莫许和狄克逊策划了骑士陨落的联动事件,让蝙蝠侠的背部被反派贝恩打断。[55]而名为死亡天使的尚·保罗·范雷在布鲁斯·韦恩复健期间受托穿上蝙蝠装代替成为新的蝙蝠侠。但他过于嗜血暴力,韦恩复原后不得不强行收回了蝙蝠装。[56]莫许和画师凯利·琼斯在蝙蝠侠第535期(1996年10月)中共同创造了食人魔。[57]

1999年开始了一个长达一年横跨所有蝙蝠侠相关漫画期刊的故事线《无主之地》,讲述受地震袭击后的哥谭市的故事。[58]2000年,作家格雷格·卢卡将此故事改编成小说出版。[59]

2000年代[编辑]

2000 - 2003[编辑]

在“无主之地”结束后,格雷格·卢卡去负责《侦探漫画》,《蝙蝠侠》由编剧拉里·哈马和画师斯科特·麦克丹尼尔负责创作了七期。在第582期,艾德·布鲁贝克成为了《蝙蝠侠》的编剧[60] ,并开始了一个描写更真实的犯罪故事的趋势,其中包括一些更接地气的反派角色,如企鹅,新反派蔡司,以及死射。[61] 布鲁贝克为了写一个短篇故事“警察倒下”而中断了他蝙蝠侠连载的工作,这个短篇故事描述了戈登局长在执行任务时被枪击,最终从哥谭警察部队退役。在布鲁贝克回来之前,作家布莱恩·k·沃恩写了一份三期的短故事,重点关注了蝙蝠侠的伪装的犯罪角色火柴马龙。之后由布鲁贝克和鲁卡策划的联动事件名为“布鲁斯韦恩:凶手?”  布鲁斯·韦恩因谋杀女友而遭陷害,差点抛弃平民身份。


[62][63][64][65][66]

2003 - 2006[编辑]

2002年末,第608期开始编剧杰夫·洛布与画家吉姆·李合作为期12期的“缄默”故事线;此故事成为自蝙蝠侠第500期后首次登上钻石漫画发行公司销售冠军的蝙蝠侠漫画。吉姆·李的线条扎实,配合宏大的场景和精美的电脑上色,画面效果极致奢华。[67]引入故事同名的新角色,以及重新定义了谜语人,治愈了哈维·登特,并对杰森·托德之死的相关事件提出了质疑。眩晕漫画《100发子弹》的创作团队在《蝙蝠侠》中开始《破碎之城》的六期故事。[68][69]编剧贾德·温尼克成为该系列的作者,并在一个题为“头罩之下”的故事中表明说,杰森·托德早已复活,并以红头罩为幌子下成为了哥谭的反英雄。[70]

无限危机后系列、DC漫画宇宙的所有常规的月度连载向后跳了一年的时间,描绘的人物在与前几期完全不同的情况和环境中。《面对面》由詹姆斯·罗宾逊撰写,讲述了蝙蝠侠从长达一年的海外之旅中归来,重现了他年轻时离开哥谭市后所进行的修行,并讲述了詹姆斯·戈登重返哥谭市警局局长位置的故事。[71]

2006 - 2009[编辑]

格兰特·莫里森在第655期开始了他的蝙蝠侠史诗。[72]第一个故事是《蝙蝠侠与其子》揭示了韦恩有一个名叫达米安的儿子,他试图引导孩子远离他母亲塔里亚的阴谋。[73]从那时起,莫里森开始了一个长故事性,一个有影响力的邪恶组织“黑手套”试图摧毁蝙蝠侠以及他所代表的一切。这最终导致了蝙蝠侠R.I.P.的故事情节,黑手套最初成功地做到了这一点,但是受到布鲁斯·韦恩保持理智的能力的挫败,在被清空记忆后,一个不稳定的,疯狂的人格接管了这个蝙蝠侠的身体。[74]在阻止黑手套之后,莫里森将蝙蝠侠带入了他主持的大事件《终极危机》中,结局蝙蝠侠似乎被达克赛德杀死了。[75]但事实上,他被送往遥远的过去,被困在那里的。[76]尼尔·盖曼写了第686期,这是标题为《披风斗士的命运》的第一部分,第二部分连载在《侦探漫画》上。这就像艾伦·摩尔为超人写的《明日之子的身上到底发生了什么》一样,成为了蝙蝠侠的灵魂之作。[77]

之后,主要的蝙蝠侠系列连载中断,直到短篇《披风争夺战》后迪克·格雷森成为新任蝙蝠侠,布鲁斯·韦恩从DC宇宙中消失。[78]格兰特莫里森一直参与写作蝙蝠侠,但是是在一个新的系列题为《蝙蝠侠和罗宾》,在此时期格雷森成为蝙蝠侠而达米安·韦恩担任新的罗宾。作家贾德·温尼克写了格雷森的第一个蝙蝠侠身份的故事,然后把编剧和画作责任交给了托尼·丹尼尔。[79][80]

2010年代[编辑]

丹尼尔担任这个系列的主要编剧,直到第699期。随着《蝙蝠侠》第700期(2010年8月)的出版,《蝙蝠侠》达到了一个新的里程碑,格兰特·莫里森回归,并与丹尼尔、弗兰克·奎利特、安迪·库伯特和大卫·芬奇组成的画师团队合作。几个单独的故事联系在一起来说明蝙蝠侠的遗产是无穷无尽的,并且将会延续到最遥远的时间。[81]莫里森直到第702期继续担任该剧的编剧,同时还在撰写《蝙蝠侠与罗宾》系列和一部短连载《布鲁斯·韦恩归途》。托尼·丹尼尔在第704期恢复了编剧和画师的职责。[82]在布鲁斯·韦恩回归后,迪克·格雷森仍然担任了蝙蝠侠一年,同时也是《蝙蝠侠》、《蝙蝠侠与罗宾》和《侦探漫画》的主角。布鲁斯·韦恩则在两部新刊中担任蝙蝠侠:《蝙蝠群英会》和《蝙蝠侠:黑暗骑士》。[83]

2011年6月1日,在闪点事件重启了DC宇宙之后,DC漫画宣布在DC宇宙中发行的所有系列要么被取消,要么被重新启动,发行新的第1期。蝙蝠侠也不例外,新系列的第一期于2011年9月21日发行。

新52[编辑]

2011年9月,大事件闪点之后DC漫画宇宙重启。《蝙蝠侠》由斯科特·斯奈德担任编剧,画师则是DC新挖来的格雷格·卡普罗。[84][85][86]重启后蝙蝠侠年龄回到了32岁,蝙蝠侠的历史被精简后压缩所在7年之内。除了斯蒂芬妮·布朗之外,所有曾担任过罗宾的角色都被保留仍然为蝙蝠侠效力。布鲁斯·韦恩作为唯一的蝙蝠侠出现,而迪克·格雷森也回到了夜翼的身份,出现在他自己的系列。[87]

首个故事“猫头鹰法庭”,[88]讲述了蝙蝠侠面对一个控制哥谭市数个世纪的秘密结社—猫头鹰法庭的故事。[89][90]第二个故事线是“灭族之灾”,小丑认为蝙蝠侠因为蝙蝠家族的羁绊变得弱小了,于是回到高谭市同时攻击了蝙蝠家族的每一个成员。之后斯奈德回顾了蝙蝠侠的初始用“零年”重写了蝙蝠侠诞生的故事。之后的“终局”则延续了“灭族之灾”的故事,小丑终于对蝙蝠侠彻底失望,他决意终结两人间失去乐趣的关系,于是小丑历史上最为庞大的计划开始了。在“终局”之后蝙蝠侠与小丑双双重伤陷于地下,回归后的布鲁斯失忆了,但哥谭不能没有蝙蝠侠,于是戈登局长成为了代班蝙蝠侠。在蝙蝠侠连载的最后布鲁斯归来重新成为蝙蝠侠,而整个新52也已经进入尾声。

DC 重生[编辑]

2016年5月,随着新52被“DC宇宙:重生”结束DC漫画各部门人员大幅改动,新52时期重启的《蝙蝠侠》再度被取消,并以《DC宇宙重生:蝙蝠侠》重开连载。重生后汤姆·金成为了新任《蝙蝠侠》主刊编辑,带来了蝙蝠侠与猫女的新故事。[91][92][93] 

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Template:Gcdb series
  2. ^ The Catalog of Copyright Entries 1940 Periodicals Jan-Dec New Series Vol 35 Pt 2. Washington, D.C.: United States Copyright Office. 1940: 142. 
  3. ^ Batman #1 (Spring 1940). Grand Comics Database. 
  4. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. 1940s. DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2010: 31. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. The first issue of Batman's self-titled comic written by Bill Finger and drawn by Bob Kane, represented a milestone in more ways than one. With Robin now a partner to the Caped Crusader, villains needed to rise to the challenge, and this issue introduced two future legends: the Joker and Catwoman. 
  5. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 44: "Batman and Robin got some help in their crusade against crime with the arrival of butler Alfred in a thirteen-page back-up story by writer Don Cameron and artist Bob Kane."
  6. ^ Desris, Joe. Batman Archives, Vol. 3. New York, New York: DC Comics. 1994: 223. ISBN 1-56389-099-2. 
  7. ^ Verified by Sprang at Batman #18 (Aug.-Sept. 1943) and Detective Comics #84 (Feb. 1944) at the Grand Comics Database
  8. ^ Verified by Sprang at Batman #19 (Oct.-Nov. 1943) at the Grand Comics Database
  9. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 59: "Inspired by Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, the Mad Hatter joined the other costumed freaks of Gotham City on his debut in October's Batman #49"
  10. ^ Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 66: "Batman #63 kicked off with the origin story of a new Batman villain: the Killer Moth."
  11. ^ Morris, Brian K. Maybe I Was Just Loyal Longtime Batman artist Sheldon Moldoff talks about Bob Kane and other phenomena 3 (59). Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing: 14–23. June 2006. 
  12. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 77: "Once Superman had a dog, Batman got one too, in "Ace, the Bat-Hound!" In the story by writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff, Batman and Robin found a German Shepherd called Ace."
  13. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 88: "Throughout 1958 Batman encountered aliens from different planets and dimensions."
  14. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 92: "The Dynamic Duo battled the frosty foe Mr. Zero in a story written by Dave Wood and with art by Sheldon Moldoff in Batman #121...The 1960s Batman TV series, starring Adam West, included the character of Mr. Zero but renamed him Mr. Freeze. Later comic book incarnations of the ice-cold villain would adopt the new name."
  15. ^ McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 102: "Young Betty Kane assumed the costumed identity of Bat-Girl in this tale by writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff."
  16. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 110: "The Dark Knight received a much-needed face lift from new Batman editor Julius Schwartz, writer John Broome, and artist Carmine Infantino. With sales at an all-time low and threatening the cancellation of one of DC's flagship titles, theirBest with interest overhaul was a lifesaving success for DC and its beloved Batman."
  17. ^ Ro, Ronin. Tales To Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee, And The American Comic Book Revolution. London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing. 2004: 89–90. ISBN 1582343454. There was a point when DC actually gave thought to canceling Batman...in his spacious office, facing [Julius] Schwartz and [Carmine] Infantino, [Irwin] Donenfeld told them, 'Gentlemen, you two guys are going to take over Batman. The book is dying. I'll give you six months. If you don't bring it back, we'll kill it off. 
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  19. ^ Forbeck, Matt; Dougall, Alastair, ed. 1960s. Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2014: 84. ISBN 978-1465424563. Writer Ed Herron joined artist Sheldon Moldoff for this first issue of Batman featuring the 'New Look'. 
  20. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 114: "Nearly eighteen years had passed since the Riddler last tried to stump Batman and Robin. Therefore, when writer Gardner Fox and artist Sheldon Moldoff released Edward Nigma, the villain insisted that he had reformed."
  21. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 118: "Poison Ivy first cropped up to plague Gotham City in issue #181 of Batman. Scripter Robert Kanigher and artist Sheldon Moldoff came up with a villain who would blossom into one of Batman's greatest foes."
  22. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 135: "When Dick Grayson moved out of Wayne Manor to begin college, writer Frank Robbins and artist Irv Novick orchestrated a chain reaction of events that forever altered Batman's personality."
  23. ^ Greenberger, Robert; Manning, Matthew K. The Batman Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the Batcave. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. 2009: 26. ISBN 0-7624-3663-8. Editor Julius Schwartz had decided to darken the character's world to further distance him from the camp environment created by the 1966 ABC show. Bringing in the talented O'Neil as well as the innovative Frank Robbins and showcasing the art of rising star Neal Adams...Schwartz pointed Batman in a new and darker direction, a path the character still continues on to this day. 
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  51. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 233: "Using the Cold War as their backdrop, writer Jim Starlin and artist Jim Aparo crafted the four-part storyline 'Ten Nights of the Beast'."
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  74. ^ Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 333: "Writer Grant Morrison and artist Tony Daniel's run on Batman reached its climax with the story arc 'R.I.P.'...with the apparent death of Batman."
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