血吸虫病

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血吸蟲病
Schistosomiasis itch.jpeg
前臂由於寄生蟲血吸蟲侵入所造成的皮膚疤痕
分类和外部资源
醫學專科 感染科
ICD-10 B65
ICD-9-CM 120
MedlinePlus 001321
Patient UK 血吸虫病
MeSH D012552

血吸蟲病英语:schistosomiasis、bilharzia、snail fever、Katayama fever[1][2]又稱裂體蟲病曼森氏病[3],是一個由血吸蟲類的寄生蟲所導致之疾病。它有可能感染尿道消化系統。症狀包括腹痛、下痢、血便、或血尿。在受到長期感染的人身上,有可能導致肝臟受損、腎衰竭、不孕膀胱癌。在兒童身上,可能造成發育不良和學習障礙[4]

此疾病的傳播途徑為接觸到含寄生蟲的水源。寄生蟲由受到感染的淡水蝸牛釋出。此疾病在開發中國家的小孩身上最為常見,因為他們有較高的機率在戲水過程中接觸到受污染的水源。其他的高危險群包括農夫、漁夫以及日常水源受污染者[4]。血吸蟲病屬於蠕蟲感染英语helminthiasis的一種[5],診斷依據為在患者的尿液或糞便中發現寄生蟲卵。亦可經由血液中發現針對此疾病的抗體而確診[4]

預防手段包括乾淨水源的普及化以及蝸牛數量的抑制。在此疾病盛行的地區,驅蟲藥吡喹酮可以以一年一次的頻率對整個群體施用。如此可以由降低感染人數,達到減緩疾病傳播的目的。吡喹酮也是世界衛生組織所建議對已知感染者的治療手段[4]

全世界受血吸蟲病影響的人數約有 2.1 億人[6],估計每年有12,000[7]到200,000人因此死亡[8]。此疾病在非洲最為常見,在亞洲南美洲也很盛行[4]。全世界大約有超過70餘國、約7億人活在此疾病的好發地區[8][9]。血吸蟲病是全球第二大的病,僅次於瘧疾,是對經濟破壞性最大的寄生蟲病[10]。從古代到20世紀初,血吸蟲病血尿的症狀在埃及被視為男性的月事英语male menstruation,也因此被當作是男孩的成年禮[11][12]。它是一種被忽視熱帶病[13]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Schistosomiasis (bilharzia). NHS Choices. Dec 17, 2011 [15 March 2014]. 
  2. ^ Schistosomiasis. Patient.co.uk. 12/02/2013 [11 June 2014]. 
  3. ^ 衛生福利部病例中文化字彙查詢. [2015-10-31]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Schistosomiasis Fact sheet N°115. World Health Organization. February 2014 [15 March 2014]. 
  5. ^ Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related To Travel. cdc.gov. August 1, 2013 [30 November 2014]. 
  6. ^ Fenwick, A. The global burden of neglected tropical diseases.. Public health. Mar 2012, 126 (3): 233–6. PMID 22325616. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2011.11.015. 
  7. ^ Lozano, R; Naghavi, M; Foreman, K; Lim, S; Shibuya, K; Aboyans, V; Abraham, J; Adair, T; 等. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. Dec 15, 2012, 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Thétiot-Laurent, SA; Boissier, J; Robert, A; Meunier, B. Schistosomiasis Chemotherapy. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). Jun 27, 2013, 52 (31): 7936–56. PMID 23813602. doi:10.1002/anie.201208390. 
  9. ^ Schistosomiasis A major public health problem. World Health Organization. [15 March 2014]. 
  10. ^ The Carter Center. Schistosomiasis Control Program. [2008-07-17]. 
  11. ^ Kloos, Helmut; Rosalie David. The Paleoepidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt (PDF). Human Ecology Review. 2002, 9 (1): 14–25. By the early twentieth century, the Egyptian population was well aware of the widespread occurrence of haematuria to the point where the apssing of blood by boys was considered as a normal and even necessary part of growing up, a form of male menstruation linked with male fertility (Girges 1934, 103). 
  12. ^ Rutherford, Patricia. The Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis in Modern and Ancient Tissues by Means of Immunocytochemistry. Chungara, Revista de Antropología Chilena. 2000, 32 (1). ISSN 0717-7356. The ancient Egyptians also wrote of boys becoming men when blood was seen in their urine, as this was likened to the young female's first menstruation (Despommier et al. 1995). Also archaeological evidence such as wall reliefs, hieroglyphs and papyri all confirm that their lifestyle encompassed activities such as bathing, fishing and playing in the Nile, and this combined with bad sanitation habits, would make almost everyone susceptible to this infection. 
  13. ^ Neglected Tropical Diseases. cdc.gov. June 6, 2011 [28 November 2014].