^Ashley N. Mortensen, Daniel R. Schmehl, Jamie Ellis, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. European honey bee - Apis mellifera. 佛羅里達大學. August 2013 [2015-08-08]（英语）. The western honey bee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, naturally occurs in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. This species has been subdivided into at least 20 recognized subspecies (or races), none of which are native to the Americas. However, subspecies of the western honey bee have been spread extensively beyond their natural range due to economic benefits related to pollination and honey production.
^Ashley N. Mortensen, Daniel R. Schmehl, Jamie Ellis, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. European honey bee - Apis mellifera. 佛羅里達大學. August 2013 [2015-08-08]（英语）. In the United States, “European” honey bees (Fig. 1) represent a complex of several interbreeding European subspecies including; Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann, Apis mellifera mellifera Linnaeus, Apis mellifera causcasia Pollmann, and Apis mellifera iberiensis Engel. Introduction of these subspecies dates back to early American settlers in 1622. More recently (late 1950s), a subspecies of African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, that can interbreed with European subspecies was introduced into the Americas.
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^Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Nature. Oct 26, 2006, 443 (7114): 931–949. PMID 17073008. doi:10.1038/nature05260.
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