^Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010(PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. [2011-03-28]. "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin regardless of race.
^American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin. United States Census Bureau. [2008-10-05]. （原始内容存档于2010-02-27）. For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any "race". 1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States.
^"'Latino' . . . 'is more inclusive and descriptive'" than Hispanic. "'Latino' is short for 'latinoamericano,' which of course means Latin American in Spanish. Like its English counterpart, the term 'latinoamericano' strictly refers to the people who come from the territory in the Americas colonized by Latin nations, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, whose languages are derived from Latin. People from Brazil, Mexico, and even Haiti are thus all 'latinoamericanos.' Individuals who are decendants of the former British or Dutch colonies are excluded. . . . Finally, 'hispanoamericanos' are persons from the former colonies of Spain in the 'New World.' The expression 'Hispanic' probably derives from 'hispanoamericanos.'" Angel R. Oquendo, Re-Imagining the Latino/a Race, 12 Harvard BlackLetter L.J. 93, 96 -97 (1995)
^"[T]he term 'Latino' . . . is more inclusive and descriptive than the term 'Hispanic.'" Deborah A. Ramirez, Excluded Voices: The Disenfranchisement of Ethnic Groups From Jury Service, 1993 Wis. L. Rev. 761, 806 (1993).
Maura, Juan Francisco. Caballeros y rufianes andantes en la costa atlántica de los Estados Unidos: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón y Alvar Núñez Cabeza. Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 2011, 35 (2): 305–328.
Maura, Juan Francisco. Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI. Bulletin of Spanish Studies. 2009, 86 (5): 577–603. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345.
Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region. Journal of Geography. May 2007, 106 (3): 113–122. doi:10.1080/00221340701599113.