西班牙開局

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西班牙開局國際象棋開局開放性開局的一種,走法為: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5。這是最常用的國際象棋開局之一。

西班牙開局
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c6 black knight
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走法1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5
ECO編號C60–C99
母局開放性開局
Chessgames.com

歷史[编辑]

西班牙開局(英語:Ruy Lopez)以一名西班牙牧師魯伊·洛佩斯·德·塞古拉英语Ruy López de Segura命名,他在1561年出版了《國際象棋書》(西班牙語:Libro del Ajedrez)並在其中介紹了此開局。但此開局早在1490年的哥廷根手稿英语Göttingen manuscript中已有記載。它在19世紀中才被象棋理論家卡爾·雅尼什英语Carl Jaenisch發揚光大,現今已十分流行,許多象棋大師也會使用。可是,由於此開局給與黑方很大的打擊,而Ruy López de Segura又是在宗教裁判時期的牧師,因此此開局給取了個諢名「西班牙酷刑」。

概論[编辑]

雖然3.Bb5正在攻擊保護e兵的c馬,但白方不能以4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.Nxe5吃兵,因5...Qd4或5...Qg5叫吃馬和兵,給予黑方優勢。然而,3.Bb5能為王車易位作準備,及盯住黑王。黑方有很多回應可選擇,但要下工夫才能取得均勢。

摩菲防禦[编辑]

3...a6[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
b5 white bishop
e5 black pawn
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
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摩菲防禦:3...a6

保羅·摩菲英语Paul Morphy命名,但他並不是其發明者(Ercole del Rio在其著作Sopra il giuoco degli Scacchi, Osservazioni pratiche dell'anonimo Modenese中首次提到此著)。此步逼迫b5象移動,在超過75%比試中黑方選擇了這一著。除了封閉性防禦外有以下變著:

  • 4.Bxc6
  • 4.Ba4
    • 4...b5 5.Bb3 Na5
    • 4...b5 5.Bb3 Bc5
    • 4...Bc5
    • 4...d6
    • 4...f5
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bb7
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bc5
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 Bc5
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 d6
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 Nxe4

兌子變著[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
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b7 black pawn
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a6 black pawn
c6 black pawn
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兌子變著4.Bxc6 dxc6(ECO C68–C69)

兌子變著4.Bxc6後,黑方通常會應4...dxc6,4...bxc6會導致5.d4 exd4 6.Qxd4,白方控制中心。4...dxc6後,雖然黑方兵形被破壞,但他有機會發展堅固的防禦。鮑比·菲舍爾在1960年代發展了5.0-0取代給與黑方微小優勢的5.d4,黑方可應5...f6、5...Bg4、5...Qd6、5...Qe7、5...Qf6或5...Bd6。

挪威變着[编辑]

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a8 black rook
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d8 black queen
e8 black king
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g8 black knight
h8 black rook
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挪威變着(ECO C70)

在3...a6 4.Ba4 b5 5.Bb3 Na5後,通常應着為6.0-0 d6 7.d4 Nxb3,黑方可吃白象,但損失了速度。6.Bxf7+ Kxf7 7.Nxe5+令王移動,但黑方能鞏固其子力。

...Bc5[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
f6 black knight
c5 black bishop
e5 black pawn
a4 white bishop
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
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a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
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g1 white king
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穆勒防禦

經過超過一個世紀象在e7是較隱健的,但其實象在c5更主動。包括3...a6 4.Ba4 Bc5的古典防禦延遲、3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Bc5的穆勒防禦和3...a6 4.Ba4 b5 5.Bb3 Bc5的格拉茨防禦。

現代斯坦尼茨防禦延遲[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
d6 black pawn
e5 black pawn
a4 white bishop
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
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c2 white pawn
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3...a6 4.Ba4 d6。此變例能給與黑方更大的空間和鞏固其中心。5.c3(5...f5、5...Bd7 6.d4)、5.c4、5.Bxc6+(5...bxc6 6.d4)、5.d4和5.0-0(5...Bg4 6.h3 h5)皆是可能的續着。

阿爾漢格爾斯克防禦[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
b7 black bishop
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
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h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
f6 black knight
b5 black pawn
e5 black pawn
e4 white pawn
b3 white bishop
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
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a1 white rook
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3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bb7(ECO C78)。局面尖銳,黑方企圖挑戰b3象以補償他延遲的易位。白方有進兵至c3和d4以補足兵形、7.Re1防禦e兵的選擇,但不是7.Ng5 d5 8.exd5 Nd4!。

開放防禦[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
e6 black bishop
b5 black pawn
d5 black pawn
e5 white pawn
e4 black knight
b3 white bishop
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
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8...Be6

3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Nxe4。黑方在白方抵消兵力損失時爭奪中心格,常見應着為6.d4 b5 7.Bb3 d5 8.dxe5 Be6 9.c3/Be3/Qe2/Nbd2。當中9.Be3 Be7 10.c3、9.c3 Be7、9.c3 Bc5 10.Nbd2 0-0 11.Bc2 f5/Bf5/Nxf2為主線。

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
d8 black king
h8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
e6 black bishop
a4 white bishop
e4 black pawn
a2 white pawn
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f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white king
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
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里加變例:6.d4 exd4 7.Re1 d5 8.Nxd4 Bd6! 9.Nxc6 Bxh2+! 10.Kh1!(10.Kxh2 Qh4+ 11.Kg1 Qxf2+和)Qh4 11.Rxe4+! dxe4 12.Qd8+! Qxd8 13.Nxd8+ Kxd8 14.Kxh2 Be6 15. Be3/Bf4/c3...(15.Nc3 c5!)白稍優。

封閉防禦[编辑]

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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
f6 black knight
e5 black pawn
a4 white bishop
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
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h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
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3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7。黑方威脅要6...b5和7...Nxe4,而白方有以下選擇:

  • 6.Bxc6(兌子變着延遲)
  • 6.d4(中心變着)
  • 6.Qe2(沃勒爾變着)
  • 6.Re1 d6(阿維爾巴赫變着)
  • 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3
    • 7...Bb7(特拉伊科維奇變着)
    • 7...0-0 8.c3 d5(馬歇爾進攻)
    • 7...d6 8.c3 0-0(主線)

兌子變着延遲[编辑]

6.Bxc6(ECO C85)。相較於兌子變着,白方損失了一先,但黑方f6馬和e7象的位置也不佳。

中心變着[编辑]

6.d4(ECO C69),局面較尖銳。黑方若要守住攻勢,必須謹慎。

沃勒爾變着[编辑]

abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
f6 black knight
b5 black pawn
e5 black pawn
e4 white pawn
b3 white bishop
c3 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
e2 white queen
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
e1 white rook
g1 white king
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6.Qe2(ECO C86),由后防禦e兵,車可走到d1,往後為6...b5 7.Bb3 0-0 8.c3 d5/d6。

阿維爾巴赫變着[编辑]

abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
e5 black pawn
a4 white bishop
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
f1 white rook
g1 white king
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6.Re1 d6(ECO C87),黑e兵的保護加強。白方可以7.Bxc6 bxc6 8.d4。而7.c3 Bg4(7...b5 8.Bc2,白方得一先)也是可以的,白方可8.h3 Bh5 9.Bxc6 bxc6 10.d4或8.d3(容許Nbd2–f1–g3)。

特拉伊科維奇變着[编辑]

abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
b7 black bishop
c7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
b5 black pawn
e5 white rook
f4 black knight
b3 white bishop
c3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
g1 white king
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11...Nf4

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 Bb7,黑方可以8.c3 d5 9.exd5 Nxd5 10.Nxe5 Nxe5 11.Rxe5 Nf4棄兵。

7...0-0[编辑]

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 0-0後,白方可8.c3,也可8.a4、8.h3、8.d4或8.d3。另外8.c3 d6也是馬歇爾進攻外的一個選擇。

馬歇爾進攻[编辑]
abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black pawn
b5 black pawn
d5 black knight
e5 white rook
b3 white bishop
c3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
g1 white king
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11...c6

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 0-0 8.c3 d5 9.exd5 Nxd5(9...e4較弱) 10.Nxe5 Nxe5 11.Rxe5 c6 12.d3/d4,黑方進攻白方缺乏保護的王翼,但這進攻是不明確及難以抵禦的,因此不少大師均於第8着避免此着法。

主線[编辑]

abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
c7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
b5 black pawn
e5 black pawn
e4 white pawn
b3 white bishop
c3 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white rook
g1 white king
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8...0-0

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 0-0,通常應着為9.h3,以準備d4進兵、Nbd2–f1–g3及避免黑方Bg4的牽制。為了不讓g3馬能保護e4、給予雙白象開放綫和向黑方王翼施壓,黑方會擴張后翼、佔領中心或向e4施壓。

之後的可能變着是:

  • 9.d3
  • 9.d4 Bg4
  • 9.h3
    • 9...Na5(奇戈林變着)
    • 9...Bb7(扎伊采夫變着)
    • 9...Nb8(布雷耶變着)
    • 9...Nd7(卡爾波夫變着)
    • 9...Be6
    • 9...h6(斯梅斯洛夫變着)
奇戈林變着[编辑]
abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
f8 black rook
g8 black king
c7 black queen
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
a5 black knight
b5 black pawn
c5 black pawn
e5 black pawn
d4 white pawn
e4 white pawn
c3 white pawn
f3 white knight
h3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white bishop
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white rook
g1 white king
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11...Qc7

9.h3 Na5(ECO C96–C99),黑馬解除c兵的阻礙,及叫吃白象,但因a5位置不活躍,變着流行度已降低。續着是10.Bc2 c5 11.d4 Qc7(加強保護e兵和藉cxd4開放c線)/Bb7/Nd7。

扎伊采夫變着[编辑]
abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
d8 black queen
e8 black rook
g8 black king
b7 black bishop
c7 black pawn
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
h6 black pawn
b5 black pawn
e5 black pawn
a4 white pawn
d4 white pawn
e4 white pawn
b3 white bishop
c3 white pawn
f3 white knight
h3 white pawn
b2 white pawn
d2 white knight
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white rook
g1 white king
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12.Nbd2

9.h3 Bb7 10. d4 Re8 11. a4 h6 12. Nbd2,為主要變着之一。11. a4要挑戰黑方被6...b5削弱的后翼,11...h6避免12. Ng5 Rf8 13. Nf3迫和,12. Nbd2要移馬到g3。

布雷耶變着[编辑]
abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
d8 black queen
e8 black rook
f8 black bishop
g8 black king
b7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
g6 black pawn
b5 black pawn
c5 black knight
d5 white pawn
e5 black pawn
h5 black pawn
a4 white pawn
c4 black pawn
e4 white pawn
c3 white pawn
e3 white bishop
f3 white knight
g3 white knight
h3 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white bishop
d2 white queen
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
e1 white rook
g1 white king
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19...h5

9.h3 Nb8(ECO C94–C95),解除c兵的阻礙,及運馬到d7支持e兵。10.d4 Nbd7 11.Nbd2 Bb7 12.Bc2 Re8 13.Nf1 Bf8(威脅exd4) 14. Ng3 g6(阻止Nf5) 15.a4(挑戰后翼) c5(中心反擊) 16. d5 c4 17. Bg5 h6 18.Be3 Nc5 19.Qd2 h5(逼着)是主變。

卡爾波夫變着[编辑]

9.h3 Nd7,較為被動的一着。卡爾波夫在1990年西洋棋世界冠軍對抗賽中數次使用,但卡斯帕羅夫在第18局中已獲得明顯優勢。

9...Be6[编辑]
abcdefgh
8
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a8 black rook
f8 black rook
g8 black king
c7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black knight
f6 black bishop
b5 black pawn
d5 black queen
d4 white pawn
g4 white rook
b3 white pawn
f3 white knight
h3 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
18.Rg4

9.h3 Be6 10.d4 Bxb3 11.axb3(11.Qxb3) 11...exd4 12.cxd4 d5 13.e5 Ne4 14.Nc3 f5 15.exf6 Bxf6 16.Nxe4 dxe4 17.Rxe4 Qd5 18.Rg4,現在此變着的流行度已大大降低,黑方少兵無補償。

斯梅斯洛夫變着[编辑]

9.h3 h6(ECO C93),容許10...Re8和11...Bf8,但黑方失一先、王翼被削弱,因此黑方通常會採用改良版的扎伊采夫變着。1997年深藍對卡斯帕羅夫第二局卡斯帕羅夫用此變例告負。

其他防禦[编辑]

除了摩菲防禦外,以下是其他可行的走法。

  • 3...g6(斯梅斯洛夫變着)
  • 3...Nd4(伯德防禦)
  • 3...d6(斯坦尼茨防禦)
  • 3...f5!?(施利曼防禦)
  • 3...Bc5(古典防禦)
  • 3...Nf6(柏林防禦)

斯梅斯洛夫變着[编辑]

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
g6 black pawn
b5 white bishop
g5 white bishop
d4 black pawn
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
d1 white queen
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
5.Bg5

3...g6(ECO C60)。1980年代4.c3 a6!對黑有利,但後來發現4.d4 exd4 5.Bg5(5.c3),令此變着流行度降低。

伯德防禦[编辑]

3...Nd4(ECO C61)。以小心的下子,白方能取得優勢。發揚者亨利·伯德使用它至少25次,取得+9 =3 −13的成績,自此並沒有大師經常採用。

斯坦尼茨防禦[编辑]

3...d6(ECO C62)是較為穩健的一着,但顯得被動和侷促,因此現代斯坦尼茨防禦延遲是較流行的。

施利曼防禦[编辑]

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
b5 white bishop
d5 black pawn
e5 black pawn
e4 white knight
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
5...d5

3...f5(ECO C63),藉棄兵向王翼施壓。但此着功效成疑,較少大師採用。通常續着為4.Nc3 fxe4 5.Nxe4 d5(較尖銳)/Nf6。

古典防禦[编辑]

3...Bc5(ECO C64),4.c3(4.0-0) f5(4... Nf6 5.0-0 0-0 6.d4 Bb6較穩健)5.d4。

柏林防禦[编辑]

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black pawn
e5 white pawn
f5 black knight
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
8...Kxd8

3...Nf6(ECO C65–67)柏林防禦以堅固和容易致和聞名,為不少大師採用,包括克拉姆尼克、卡斯帕羅夫。之後通常為4.0-0 Nxe4(4...Bc5是進取的一着) 5.d4(5.Re1 Nd6 6.Nxe5) Nd6 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.dxe5 Nf5 8.Qxd8+ Kxd8,白方有好兵形,黑王暴露於外,白優,但黑也有雙象。此外4.Nc3轉為四馬開局也可以。

參考文獻[编辑]

引用[编辑]

书籍[编辑]