計算神經科學

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計算神經科學(Computational neuroscience)為一種跨領域科學,包含神經科學認知科學資訊工程電腦科學物理學數學。這個詞首次出現於1985年,由史瓦茲(Eric L. Schwartz)於加州卡莫市主辦的會議中提出。其後出現的類似名詞包含neural modeling, brain theory 及 neural networks。後來相關的解釋定義皆收錄於麻省理工學院出版(1990)之Computational Neuroscience一書內。有關此領域的研究最早可追溯自Hodgkin與Huxley、Hubel與Wiesel,以及 David Marr,等人Hodgkin & Huxley發明voltage clamp技術,首次成功的將動作電位數值化。Hubel及Wiesel則發現主要視覺皮質區(primary visual cortex),此區負責處理由虹膜傳來的第一手訊息,將接收區與彙整區做出整理(Hubel & Wiesel, 1962)。

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  • Brian, a simulator for spiking neural networks.
  • Emergent, neural simulation software.
  • Genesis, a general neural simulation system.
  • HHsim, a neuronal membrane simulator.
  • HNeT, Holographic Neural Technology.
  • MCell, A Monte Carlo Simulator of Cellular Microphysiology.
  • ModelDB, a large open-access database of program codes of published computational neuroscience models.
  • NEST, a simulation tool for large neuronal systems.
  • Neuroconstruct, software for developing biologically realistic 3D neural networks.
  • Neurofitter, a parameter tuning package for electrophysiological neuron models.
  • Neurojet, a neural network simulator specialized for the hippocampus.
  • NEURON, a neuron simulator also useful to simulate neural networks.
  • Neurospaces, an efficient neural simulation system that uses software engineering principles from the industry.
  • Neuroscience related Python tools
  • PyDSTool, a simulator and dynamical systems analysis tool with biophysical neuron and network model specification/construction and data analysis toolboxes.
  • SNNAP, a single neuron and neural network simulator tool.

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