詹姆斯·惠斯勒

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詹姆斯·惠斯勒
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
James McNeill Whistler ca. 1885.jpg
出生James Abbott Whistler
(1834-07-10)1834年7月10日
 美國洛厄尔 (马萨诸塞州)
逝世1903年7月17日(1903歲-07-17)(69歲)
 英國伦敦
国籍 美國
教育程度西点军校
知名于画家
知名作品母亲的画像
奖项

詹姆斯·惠斯勒James McNeill Whistler,1834年7月11日-1903年7月17日),著名印象派畫家父親美國工程師,全家曾居於聖彼得堡。惠斯勒曾入讀西點軍校,之後自選畫家為職業。

惠斯勒出生于马萨诸塞州,21岁时怀着成为艺术家的雄心前往巴黎。他在伦敦建立起事业,从此未曾返回祖国。多年后,他成为19世纪美术史上最前卫的画家之一。作为一名旅居者,惠斯勒没有受到为道德而艺术的美国趋势的影响。相反,他甚至追求唯美主义,即“为艺术而艺术”(art for art's sake),这种理论认为美感应当是艺术追求的唯一目标。

在1870年代事业达到高峰之际,惠斯勒关注艺术作品的展现。他为自己的画设计画框,有时甚至自己安排展览。在为英国船王、他的主要赞助人弗雷德里克·雷兰(Frederick Richards Leyland)的伦敦住宅设计餐厅装饰时,他最终实现了塑造无所不包的整体美感的愿望。那间现在被称为孔雀厅餐厅提高了惠斯勒作为唯美主义画家的声誉,显示出他对美感的追求远远超越了画框。

惠斯勒的畫作不太重視輪廓素描,而注重彩色和音樂的效果,尤其喜歡在畫作命名上加上音樂的術語,例如《母親的畫像》又名《灰色與黑色的交響》。

作品(部分)[编辑]

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Bendix, D M (1995). Diabolical Designs: Paintings, Interiors and Exhibitions of James McNeill Whistler. Washington D.C. The Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-415-5.
  • Cox, Devon. The Street of Wonderful Possibilities: Whistler, Wilde and Sargent in Tite Street. London: Frances Lincoln. 2015. ISBN 9780711236738. 
  • Curry, David Park (1984). James McNeill Whistler at the Freer Gallery of Art. New York: W. W. Norton and Freer Gallery of Art. ISBN 9780393018479.
  • Denker, Eric (2003). Whistler and His Circle in Venice. London: Merrell Publishers. ISBN 1-85894-200-4.
  • Dorment, R and MacDonald, M. F. (1994). James McNeill Whistler. London: Tate Gallery.ISBN 1-85437-145-2.
  • Fleming, G. H. James Abbott McNeill Whistler: A Life. Adlestrop: Windrush. 1991. ISBN 0-900075-61-9. 
  • Fleming, G. H. The Young Whistler, 1834–66. London: Allen and Unwin. 1978. ISBN 0-04-927009-5. 
  • Glazer, Lee, et al. (2008). James McNeill Whistler in Context. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.ISBN 978-0-934686-09-9.
  • Glazer, Lee and Merrill, Linda eds. (2013). Palaces of Art: Whistler and the Art Worlds of Aestheticism. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. ISBN 978-1-935623-29-8.
  • Gregory, Horace. The World of James McNeill Whistler. London: Hutchinson. 1961. ISBN 0-04-927009-5. 
  • Grieve, Alastair (1984). Whistler's Venice. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08449-8.
  • Heijbroek, J. E. and MacDonald, Margaret F. (1997). Whistler and Holland. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. ISBN 90-400-9183-8.
  • Levey, Mervyn (1975). Whistler Lithographs, Catalogue Raisonne. London: Jupiter Books.
  • Lochnan, Katherine A.(1984). The Etchings of James McNeill Whistler. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03283-8.
  • MacDonald Margaret F. (2001). Palaces in the Night: Whistler and Venice. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23049-3.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F. ed. (2003). Whistler's Mother, An American Icon. Aldershot: Lund Humphries. ISBN 0-85331-856-5.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., Galassi, Susan Grace and Ribeiro, Aileen (2003). Whistler, Women, & Fashion. Frick Collection/Yale University. ISBN 0-300-09906-1.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., and de Montfort, Patricia (2013). An American in London, Whistler and the Thames. London: Philip Wilson Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78130-022-0.
  • Merrill, Linda (1992). A Pot of Paint; Aesthetics on Trial in Whistler v. Ruskin. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-300-0.
  • Merrill, Linda (1998). The Peacock Room: A Cultural Biography. Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art / Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07611-8.
  • Merrill, Linda, and Ridley, Sarah (1993) The Princess and the Peacocks; or, The Story of the [Peacock] Room. New York: Hyperion Books for Children, in association with the Freer Gallery of Art. ISBN 1-56282-327-2.
  • Merrill, Linda, et al. (2003) After Whistler: The Artist and his Influence on American Painting. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10125-2.
  • Munhall, Edgar (1995). Whistler and Montesquiou. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 2-08013-578-3.
  • Pearson, Hesketh. The Man Whistler. London: Macdonald and Jane's. 1978 [1952]. ISBN 0-354-04224-6. 
  • Petri, Grischka (2011). Arrangement in Business: The Art Markets and the Career of James McNeill Whistler. Hildesheim: G. Olms. ISBN 978-3-487-14630-0.
  • Robins, Anna Gruetzner (2007). A Fragile Modernism, Whistler and his Impressionist Followers. Yale University Press.ISBN 978-0-300-13545-9.
  • Spencer, Robin (1991). Whistler: A Retrospective. New York: Wing Books. ISBN 0-517-05773-5.
  • Stubbs, Burns A. (1950). James McNeill Whistler: A Biographical Outline Illustrated from the Collections of the Freer Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Sutherland, Daniel E. and Toutziari, G. (2018). James McNeill Whistler. Yale University Press.ISBN 978-0-300-20346-2.
  • Thompson, Jennifer A. (2017). "Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks by James Abbott McNeill Whistler (cat. 1112)." In The John G. Johnson Collection: A History and Selected Works[失效連結], edited by Christopher D. M. Atkins. A Philadelphia Museum of Art free digital publication. ISBN 978-0-87633-276-4.
  • Twohig, Edward (2018). Print REbels: Haden – Palmer – Whistler and the origins of the RE (Royal Society of Painter-Printmaker) by Edward Twohig RE. ISBN 978-1-5272-1775-1. Published by the Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers in London, in May 2018.
  • Taylor, Hilary. James McNeill Whistler. London: Studio Vista. 1978. ISBN 0-289-70836-2. 
  • Weintraub, Stanley. Whistler: A Biography. New York: Weybright and Talley. 1974. ISBN 0-679-40099-0. 
  • Young, MacDonald, Spencer, Miles (1980). The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler. Yale University Press.ISBN 0-300-02384-7.

外部參考[编辑]