諾維喬克

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諾維喬克(俄语:новичок羅馬化Novichok,意思為「新手、新人」)是蘇聯在1970年代及1980年代開發的一系列神經毒劑[1]。据称有些衍生物的毒性可能是 VX 的五至八倍,但無法得到證實[2][3]。諾維喬克屬於蘇聯「Foliant」計劃中开发的第四代化學武器[4],最早的名稱是K-84,後來更名為A-230。諾維喬克系列包括超過一百種不同結構的變體[5],其中最有軍事價值[來源請求]的是A-232(Novichok-5;[[(2-chloro-1-methylethoxy)fluorohydroxyphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride;氟磷酸氟氯二取代亚甲胺基(2-氯)异丙基酯),其次是A-230(Novichok-7;[[(2-chloroethoxy)fluorohydroxyphosphinyl]oxy]carbonimidic chloride fluoride;氟磷酸氟氯二取代亚甲胺基(2-氯)乙基酯)。

在1980年苏联化学家米尔査扬诺夫在《国家的秘密:俄罗斯化学武器计划内部知情人士的记述》一书中公开诺维乔克结构。[來源請求]Steven L. Hoenig在《化学与生物战剂手册》第二版中亦列出了部分Novichok家族成员的分子结构。

未翻译: They were designed as part of a Soviet programme codenamed FOLIANT.[3][9] Five Novichok variants are believed to have been adapted for military use.[10] The most versatile is A-232 (Novichok-5).[11] Novichok agents have never been used on the battlefield. The UK government determined that a novichok agent was used in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England in March 2018. It was unanimously confirmed by four laboratories around the world, according to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[12] Novichok was also involved in the poisoning of a British couple in Amesbury, Wiltshire, four months later, believed to have been discarded after the Salisbury attack.[13] The attacks led to the death of one person,[14] left three others in a critical condition from which they recovered, and briefly hospitalised a police officer. Russia denies producing or researching agents "under the title Novichok".[15]

In 2016, Iranian chemists synthesised five Novichok agents for analysis and produced detailed mass spectral data which was added to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Central Analytical Database.[16][17] Previously, there had been no detailed descriptions of their spectral properties in open scientific literature.[16][18] A small amount of agent A-230 was also claimed to have been synthesised in the Czech Republic in 2017 for the purpose of obtaining analytical data to help defend against these novel toxic compounds.[19]

化學結構[编辑]

有二種有機磷製劑都被歸類為諾維喬克毒劑。第一種是有dihaloformaldoxime基團的有機磷化合物,其通式如下:其中的R 可以是烷基烷氧基、烷氨基,而X為鹵素)或是像C≡N擬鹵素。這些化合物被廣泛地記載在當時的蘇聯文獻中,但不確定是否包括所有的諾維喬克毒劑[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Novichok general.png

Mirzayanov在自傳中有提到另一種結構的諾維喬克諾維喬克毒劑,其結構如下:他明確的製作了大量的化合物,許多毒性較低的衍生物也在公開文獻中以新型有機磷殺蟲劑的方式提及,因此秘密的化學武器研究可以偽裝為合法的農藥研究[14]

Novichok Mirzayanov.png


參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Tucker, J. B.; War of Nerves; Anchor Books; New York; 2006; pp 232-233.
  2. ^ Vadim J. Birstein. The Perversion Of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science. Westview Press (2004) ISBN 0-8133-4280-5
  3. ^ Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia — Past, Present, and Future, 1994. ISBN 0-374-18104-7 (see pages 325-328)
  4. ^ Tucker, J. B.; War of Nerves; Anchor Books; New York; 2006; pp 231.
  5. ^ Tucker, J. B.; War of Nerves; Anchor Books; New York; 2006; pp 233.
  6. ^ Kruglyak Yu L, Malekin SI, Martynov IV. Phosphorylated oximes. XII. Reactions of 2-halophospholanes with dichlorofluoronitrosomethane. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii. 1972; 42(4):811-14.
  7. ^ Raevskii OA, Chapysheva NV, Ivanov AN, Sokolov VB, Martynov IV. Effect of Alkyl Substituents in Phosphorylated Oximes. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii. 1987; 57(12):2720-2723
  8. ^ Raevskii OA, Grigor'ev V Yu, Solov'ev VP, Ivanov AN, Sokolov VB, Martynov IV. Electron-Donor Functions of Ethyl Methylchloroformimino Methylphosphonate. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii. 1987; 57(9):2073-2078
  9. ^ Makhaeva GF, Filonenko IV, Yankovskaya VL, Fomicheva SB, Malygin VV. Comparative studies of O,O-dialkyl-O-chloromethylchloroformimino phosphates: interaction with neuropathy target esterase and acetylcholinesterase. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Aug-Oct;19(4-5):623-8. PMID 9745921
  10. ^ Raevskiĭ OA, Chistiakov VV, Agabekian RS, Sapegin AM, Zefirov NS. Formation of models of the interaction between organophosphate compound structure and their ability to inhibit cholinesterase. Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia. 1990 Nov;16(11):1509-22. PMID 2096825
  11. ^ Ivanov IuIa, Sokolov VB, Epishina TA, Martynov IV. O-substituted alkylchloroformoximes as substrates and inhibitors of cholinesterases. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 1990;310(5):1253-5. PMID 2354654
  12. ^ Malygin VV, Sokolov VB, Richardson RJ, Makhaeva GF. Quantitative structure-activity relationships predict the delayed neurotoxicity potential of a series of O-alkyl-O-methylchloroformimino phenylphosphonates. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A. 2003 Apr 11;66(7):611-25. PMID 12746136
  13. ^ Steven L. Hoenig. Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents. Springer New York, 2007. ISBN 978-0-387-34626-7
  14. ^ Vil S Mirzayanov. State Secrets. An Insider's Chronicle of the Russian Chemical Weapons Program. (2009) pp142-145, 179-180. ISBN 978-1-4327-2566-2