词法学

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構詞學(英國語言學分科學名morphology,“組織與形態”)是語言學的一個分支,研究單詞word)的內部結構和其形成方式。如英語的dog、dogs和dog-catcher有相當的關係,英語使用者能夠利用他們的背景知識來判斷此關係,對他們來說,dog和dogs的關係就如同cat和cats,dog和dog-catcher就如同dish和dishwasher。構詞學正是研究這種單字間組成的關係,並試著整理出其組成的規則。

基本概念[编辑]

英文字的根基(字根)[编辑]

「Lexeme」 是指英文字的本根,dog 是dogs和dog catcher 的字根。雖然三字的義意不同,也與其字的根源有所關聯。

字形(word form)和字詞(vocabulary)[编辑]

dog 和 cat 有不同的字形(word form) 。另一方面,Dog 和 dog catcher 是有不同解釋的字词(vocabulary),他们所指的是不同的实体。

英文字的原形,稱为词条(lemma;原形),其引用形式(citation form),即是指可於字典上查詢的字词的根本原形(vocabulary)。

構詞學模式[编辑]

語言類型分類[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

参见[编辑]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

(Abbreviations: CUP = Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
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  • Aronoff, Mark. (1993). "Morphology by Itself". Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Aronoff, Mark. (2009). "Morphology: an interview with Mark Aronoff". ReVEL, v. 7, n. 12, ISSN 1678-8931.
  • Åkesson, Joyce. (2001). Arabic Morphology and Phonology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
  • Beard, Robert. (1995). Lexeme-Morpheme Base Morphology. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2471-5.
  • Bauer, Laurie. (2003). Introducing linguistic morphology (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-343-4.
  • Bauer, Laurie. (2004). A glossary of morphology. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown UP.
  • Bubenik, Vit. (1999). An introduction to the study of morphology. LINCOM coursebooks in linguistics, 07. Muenchen: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-570-2.
  • Bybee, J. L. (1985). Morphology: A Study of the Relation between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
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  • Foley, William A. (1998). "Symmetrical Voice Systems and Precategoriality in Philippine Languages". Workshop: Voice and Grammatical Functions in Austronesian. University of Sydney.
  • Haspelmath, Martin. (2002). Understanding morphology. London: Arnold (co-published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-340-76025-7. ISBN 0-340-76026-5.
  • Fabrega, Antonio & Sergio Scalise (2012). Morphology: from Data to Theory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Katamba, Francis. (1993). Morphology. Modern linguistics series. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-10101-5. ISBN 0-312-10356-5.
  • Korsakov, A. K. (Andreĭ Konstantinovich). (1969) The use of tenses in English. Korsakov, A. K. Structure of Modern English pt. 1. oai:gial.edu:26766 at http://www.language-archives.org/item/oai:gial.edu:26766
  • Kishorjit, N., Vidya Raj RK., Nirmal Y., and Sivaji B. (2012) "Manipuri Morpheme Identification", Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on South and Southeast Asian Natural Language Processing (SANLP), pp. 95–108, COLING 2012, Mumbai, December 2012
  • Matthews, Peter. (1991). Morphology (2nd ed.). CUP. ISBN 0-521-41043-6. ISBN 0-521-42256-6.
  • Mel'čuk, Igor A. (1993–2000). Cours de morphologie générale, vol. 1–5. Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal.
  • Mel'čuk, Igor A. (2006). Aspects of the theory of morphology. Berlin: Mouton.
  • Scalise, Sergio. (1983). Generative Morphology, Dordrecht, Foris.
  • Singh, Rajendra and Stanley Starosta (eds). (2003). Explorations in Seamless Morphology. SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-7619-9594-3.
  • Spencer, Andrew. (1991). Morphological theory: an introduction to word structure in generative grammar. No. 2 in Blackwell textbooks in linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16143-0; ISBN 0-631-16144-9
  • Spencer, Andrew and Zwicky, Arnold M. (Eds.) (1998). The handbook of morphology. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-18544-5.
  • Stump, Gregory T. (2001). Inflectional morphology: a theory of paradigm structure. No. 93 in Cambridge studies in linguistics. CUP. ISBN 0-521-78047-0 (hb).
  • van Valin, Robert D., and LaPolla, Randy. (1997). Syntax : Structure, Meaning And Function. CUP