语言均一化

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语言均一化(英语:dialect leveling; 西班牙语:nivelación lingüística),指某地区某种语言的各种方言间相似化或均一化的过程,通常由某种方言明显的淘汰促成,从而使得该地区各个语言间的可理解性增强并且产生一门更为整齐划一的语言。

基本概念[编辑]

从一方面看,在这一过程中,可能导致理解上问题的不同语言表达形式得到简化,其变体也在减少。这一变化是渐进的,在其彻底完成之前,在社会环境中有各种变体共存的情况。

从另一方面看,均一化同时还指具体单词中语法形态的变化,旨在使各种形态趋于规则[1]

具体案例[编辑]

1561年马德里被确认为西班牙首都之后,涌入了来自全国各地的移民(主要来自北部),并且各地均有其方言。马德里人和来自南部的移民在清齿擦音(sibilante sordo)和浊齿擦音(sibilante sonoro)间产生分歧,而来自北部(巴斯克以及加利西亚地区)的移民已经弃用浊咝音。这两种不同的发音导致了语言均一化。从音韵学的角度出发,这两种发音难以分辨而且只有少部分的人在使用,这一过程之后,三个浊咝音被弃用[2]

清音 浊音
硬颚擦音 [ʃ]caxa [ʒ]muger
齿龈擦音 [s]passo [z]casa
齿擦音 [ θ ]caça [ð]dezir

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Anderson, Bridget. 2002. Dialect leveling and /ai/ monophthongization among African American Detroiters. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(1). 86-98.
  • Bloomfield, L. 1933. Language. New York: H. Holt and Company.
  • Britain, David. 1997. Dialect Contact and Phonological Reallocation: "Canadian Raising" in the English Fens. Language in Society 26(1). 15-46.
  • Chambers, J. K., & Trudgill, P. 1980. Dialectology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cheshire, Jenny; Ann Gillett; Paul Kerswill and Ann Williams. 1999. The role of adolescents in dialect levelling: Final report submitted to the Economic and Social Research Council.[3]
  • Fitzmaurice, Susan M. 2000. The Great Leveler: The Role of the Spoken Media in Stylistic Shift From the Colloquial to the Conventional. American Speech 75(1). 54-68.
  • Gibson, Maik. Dialect Levelling in Tunisian Arabic: Towards a New Spoken Standard. Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic, Aleya Rouchdy. Routledge, 2003.
  • Hinskens, Frans. 1998. Dialect Levelling: A Two-dimensional Process. Folia Linguistica 32 (1-2). 35-52.
  • Hinskens, Frans. (ed.) 1996. Dialect levelling in Limburg: Structural and sociolinguistic aspects. Linguistische Arbeiten.
  • Hsu, Hui-ju and John Kwock-ping Tse. The Tonal Leveling of Taiwan Mandarin: A Study in Taipei. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics 35, no. 2 (2009): 225-244.
  • Kerswill, Paul. 2001. Mobility, meritocracy and dialect levelling: the fading (and phasing) out of Received Pronunciation. "British studies in the new millennium: the challenge of the grassroots". University of Tartu, Tartu.[4]
  • Kristensen, Kjeld and Mats Thelander. 1984. On dialect levelling in Denmark and Sweden. Folia Linguistica 28(1/2). 223-246.
  • Lefebvre, C. 1998. Creole genesis and the acquisition of grammar: The case of Haitian creole. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lefebvre, Claire. 2004. The relexification account of creole genesis: The case of Haitian Creole. Issues in the Study of Pidgin and Creole Languages, Lefebvre, Claire (ed.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins. pp. 59-180[5]
  • Miller, Michael I. 1987. Three Changing Verbs: Bite, Ride and Shrink. Journal of English Linguistics 20(1). 3-12.
  • Schøning, Signe Wedel and Inge Lise Pedersen. 2009. Vinderup in Real Time: A Showcase of Dialect Levelling. ed. by Dufresne, Monique, Fernande Dupuis and Etleva Vocaj. 233-244.
  • Siegel, J. 1985. Koines and koineization. Language in Society 14/3, 357-78.
  • Siegel, Jeff. 1997. Mixing, Levelling and pidgin/creole development. In A. Spears and D. Winford (eds.), The structure and status of pidgins and creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 111-49.
  • Trudgill, Peter, Elizabeth Gordon, Gillian Lewis and Margaret MacLagan. 2000. Determinism in new-dialect formation and the genesis of New Zealand English. Journal of Linguistics 36 (2). 299-318. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Twaddell, William. F. 1959. Standard German: Urbanization and Standard Language: A Symposium Presented at the 1958 Meetings of the American Anthropological Association. Anthropological Linguistics 1(3). 1-7.
  • Wrong, Margaret. 1942. Ibo Dialects and the Development of a Common Language. Journal of the Royal African Society 41(163). 139-141.

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Penny, Ralph. Gramática histórica del español. Barcelona: Ariel. 1993: 352. ISBN 978-84-344-8265-4. 
  2. ^ Penny, Ralph. Variación y cambio en español. Madrid: Gredos. 2000: 80–82. ISBN 84-249-2730-3. 
  3. ^ The role of adolescents in dialect levelling (PDF). Lancs.ac.uk. [2015-07-14]. 
  4. ^ Mobility, meritocracy and dialect levelling: the fading (and phasing) out of Received Pronunciation (PDF). Lancs.ac.uk. [2015-07-14]. 
  5. ^ Chapter 3 : The relxification account of creole genesis : The case of Haitian Creole (PDF). Archipel.uqam.ca. [2015-07-14].