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費爾南多·佩索阿

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费尔南多·佩索阿葡萄牙语Fernando Pessoa,1888年6月13日-1935年11月30日),生於里斯本,是葡萄牙詩人與作家。 他生前以詩集《使命》而聞名於世。 他被認為是繼路易·德贾梅士之後最偉大的葡語作家。文評家卜倫在他的作品《西方正典》形容為他是與諾貝爾獎得主巴勃魯·聶魯達最能夠代表二十世紀的詩人。在2007年票選最偉大的葡萄牙人英语Os Grandes Portugueses中,他排名第八。

寫作風格[编辑]

他在文學上以「創造」性格聞名,我們稱這種寫作手法為「異名」(Heteronymy)。各個「異名者」(heteronyms)有着不同的阅历、性格与人生哲学。異名者与作者「自我」之间常常互通书信,交流思想。在眾多角色中,以「自我」加上另外三個「異名者」最為成熟及最廣為人知。三個「異名者」分別是Álvaro de Campos、Ricardo Reis和Alberto Caeiro。在他們當中,「自我」通常都是最能夠帶出真理、存在及個性等深層哲學意義的角色。

自我(Ortónimo)[编辑]

「佩索亞的自我」性格很全面,本身也是個作家,但是總離不開士巴斯梯斯式的愛國主義思想。他的「自我」在某程度上深受一些宗教理念影響,如通神論思想及共濟會的宗教觀。故此,「自我」的詩詞充滿神話及史詩式的氣魄,有時還有一種悲劇的味道。他作為一個普世主義(Universalism)詩人,他的世界觀可能受到東方及理性主義哲學思想所影響,顯得相當矛盾,他同時接受單一及多方面的世界觀。所以,這倒令佩索亞有十足的理由把其他的三個「異名者」連同《使命》中的「半自我」-Bernando Soares從「自我」分開出來。

以葡萄牙歷史人物為背景的詩集《使命》中的佩索亞,就是最能夠代表這個「自我」,這也是他生前唯一出版的詩集。

por: Rui Alexandre N. Costa 12ºano Escola Secundária Paços de Ferreira '04/'05

參見[编辑]

外部連結(葡語)[编辑]

文學評論(葡語)[编辑]

Pessoa / Author: Carvalho, António Carlos. Publication: Lisboa: Pergaminho, 1999

O coração do texto = Le coeur du texte : novos ensaios pessoanos /author: Seabra, José Augusto.; Galhoz, Maria Aliete Dores. Publication: Lisboa : Edições Cosmos, 1996

Para compreender Fernando Pessoa : uma aproximação a Fernando Pessoa e heteronimos / Author: Pais, Amélia Pinto. Publication: Porto : Areal Editores, 1996

Pessoa inédito / Author: Pessoa, Fernando, 1888-1935.; Lopes, Maria Teresa Rita. Publication: Lisboa : Livros Horizonte, 1993

A vivência do tempo em Fernando Pessoa e outros ensaios pessoanos / Author: Matos, Maria Vitalina Leal de, 1939-publication: Lisboa, Portugal : Editorial Verbo, 1993

Literatura & heteronímia :sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Diogo, Américo António Lindeza.Publication: Pontevedra-Braga : Irmandades da Fala de Galiza e Portugal, 1992

Fernando Pessoa espelho e a esfinge / Author: Moisés, Massaud. Publication: São Paulo : Editora Cultrix : Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, 1988

Nos passos de Pessoa :ensaios / Author: Mourão-Ferreira, David, 1927- Publication: Lisboa : Editorial Presença, 1988

Estudos sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Crespo, Angel, 1926- Publication: Lisboa, Portugal : Teorema, 1988

Fernando Pessoa, o desconhecido de si mesmo / Author: Paz, Octavio, 1914-; Da Costa, Luís Alves.Publication: Lisboa : Vega, 1988

Fernando Pessoa: os trezentos e outros ensaios / Author: Centeno, Y. K. Publication: Lisboa : Editorial Presença, 1988

Microleituras de Alvaro de Campos :e outras investigações pessoanas / Author: Coêlho, Joaquim-Francisco, 1938-Publication: Lisboa : Publicações Dom Quixote, 1987

Compreender Pessoa / Author: Vilhena, Ramires.Publication: Lisboa : Vega, 1986

O essencial sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Lancastre, Maria José de. Publication: [Lisbon] : INCM, 1985

Fernando Pessoa :aquém do eu, além do outro / Author: Perrone-Moisés, Leyla.Publication: São Paulo, SP, Brasil : Martins Fontes, 1982

Estudos sobre Fernando Pessoa / Author: Lind, Georg Rudolf. Publication: [Lisbon] : Impr. Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1981

Pessoa e Camões : três análises divergentes / Author: Alves, José Edil de Lima, 1943-publication: Porto Alegre : Editora Movimento, 1979

O constelado Fernando Pessoa / Author: Quesado, José Clécio Basílio. Publication: Rio de Janeiro : Imago Editora, 1976

Um Fernando Pessoa / Author: Silva, Agostinho da, 1906-; Pessoa, Fernando,Publication: Lisboa : Guimarães Editores, 1959

Works in English[编辑]

Tales of a Resoner and the essay "Detective Story", bilingual edition, transl. into Portuguese from the original writings in English by Ana Maria de Freitas, Ana Maria de Freitas, editor, Lisbon, Portugal: Assírio & Alvim, 2012, ISBN 978-972-0-79312-6 

Forever Someone Else – selected poems – 2nd edition (enlarged), Richard Zenith, transl, Lisbon, Portugal: Assírio & Alvim, 2010 [2008], ISBN 978-972-37-1379-4 

Collected Poems of Álvaro de Campos, Chris Daniels, transl, Exeter, UK: Shearsman Books, 2009 [1928–35], ISBN 978-1-905700-25-7 

Lisbon: What the Tourist Should See, Exeter, UK: Shearsman Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1-905700-25-7 

The Collected Poems of Alberto Caeiro, Chris Daniels, transl., Exeter, UK: Shearsman Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-905700-24-0 

Selected English Poems, Exeter, UK: Shearsman Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-905700-26-4 

Message, Jonathan Griffin, transl, Exeter, UK: Shearsman Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-905700-27-1 

Selected English Poems , ed. Tony Frazer, Exeter (UK): Shearsman Books, 2007. ISBN 1-905700-26-1

A Centenary Pessoa, transl. Keith Bosley & L. C. Taylor, foreword by Octavio Paz, Carcanet Press, 2006. ISBN 1-85754-724-1

A Little Larger Than the Entire Universe: Selected Poems, transl. Richard Zenith, Penguin Classics, 2006. ISBN 0-14-303955-5

The Education of the Stoic, transl. Richard Zenith, afterword by Antonio Tabucchi, Exact Change, 2004. ISBN 1-878972-40-5

The Book of Disquiet, transl. Richard Zenith, Penguin classics, 2003. ISBN 978-0-14-118304-6

The Selected Prose of Fernando Pessoa, transl. Richard Zenith, Grove Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8021-3914-0

Sheep's Vigil by a Fervent Person: A Transelation of Alberto Caeiro/Fernando Pessoa, transl. Eirin Moure, House of Anansi, 2001. ISBN 0-88784-660-2

The Selected Prose of Fernando Pessoa, Richard Zenith, transl., New York, USA: Grove Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-8021-3914-6 

Selected Poems: with New Supplement , transl. Jonathan Griffin, Penguin Classics; 2nd edition, 2000. ISBN 0-14-118433-7

Fernando Pessoa & Co: Selected Poems, transl. Richard Zenith, Grove Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8021-3627-3

Poems of Fernando Pessoa, Edwin Honig & Susan Brown, transl., San Francisco, USA: City Lights Books, 1998, ISBN 978-0-87286-342-2 

The Keeper of Sheep, bilingual edition, transl. Edwin Honig & Susan M. Brown, Sheep Meadow, 1997. ISBN 1-878818-45-7

Message, transl. Jonathan Griffin, introduction by Helder Macedo, Menard Press, 1992. ISBN 1-905700-27-X

The Book of Disquietude, transl. Richard Zenith, Carcanet Press, 1991. ISBN 0-14-118304-7

The Book of Disquiet, transl. Iain Watson, Quartet Books, 1991. ISBN 0-7043-0153-9

The Book of Disquiet, transl. Alfred Mac Adam, New York NY: Pantheon Books, 1991. ISBN 0-679-40234-9

The Book of Disquiet, transl. Margaret Jull Costa, London, New York NY: Serpent's Tail, 1991, ISBN 1-85242-204-1

Fernando Pessoa: Self-Analysis and Thirty Other Poems, transl. George Monteiro, Gavea-Brown Publications, 1989. ISBN 0-943722-14-4

Always Astonished: selected prose, Edwin Honig, transl., San Francisco, USA: City Lights Books, 1988, ISBN 978-0-87286-228-9 

Selected Poems, transl. Edwin Honig, Swallow Press, 1971. ISBN B000XU4FE4

English Poems, 2 vol. (vol. 1 part I – Antinous, part II – Inscriptions; vol. 2 part III – Epithalamium), Lisbon: Olisipo, 1921 (vol. 1, 20 pp.; vol. 2, 16 pp., 24 cm)

35 Sonnets, Lisbon: Monteiro & Co., 1918 (20 pp., 20 cm)

Antinous: a poem, Lisbon: Monteiro & Co., 1918 (16 p., 20 cm)

The anarchist banker and other Portuguese stories. Carcanet Press, 1996. ISBN 978-1-8575420-6-6

Philosophical Essays: A Critical Edition. Edited with notes and introduction by Nuno Ribeiro. New York: Contra Mundum Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9836972-6-8

The Transformation Book — or Book of Tasks. Edited with notes and introduction by Nuno Ribeiro and Cláudia Souza. New York: Contra Mundum Press, 2014