# 費米能階

## 定義

${\displaystyle (V_{\mathrm {A} }-V_{\mathrm {B} })=-(\mu _{\mathrm {A} }-\mu _{\mathrm {B} })/e}$

-e基本电荷

${\displaystyle f(\epsilon )={\frac {1}{e^{(\epsilon -\mu )/(kT)}+1}}}$

## 參考資料

1. ^ Sze, Simon M. Physics of Semiconductor Devices（2nd ed.）. John Wiley and Sons（WIE）. 1981. ISBN 978-0-471-05661-4.
2. ^ Kittel, Charles. Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th Edition. Wiley. ISBN 047-111-181-3.
3. I. Reiss, What does a voltmeter measure? Solid State Ionics 95, 327 (1197) [1][失效連結]
4. Kittel, Charles; Herbert Kroemer. Thermal Physics (2nd Edition). W. H. Freeman. 1980-01-15: 357. ISBN 978-0-7167-1088-2.
5. Sze, S. M. Physics of Semiconductor Devices. Wiley. 1964. ISBN 0-471-05661-8.
6. ^ 教學 2 ─ 何謂費米能階國立成功大學普通物理實驗室
7. 半導體 (Semiconductor)(二)，國家科學委員會中華民國科技部前身）高瞻自然科學教學資源平台
8. ^ electrochemical potential. 國家教育研究院. [2017年1月4日]. [失效連結]
9. ^ The use of the term "Fermi energy" as synonymous with Fermi level (a.k.a. electrochemical potential) is widespread in semiconductor physics. For example: Electronics (fundamentals And Applications) by D. Chattopadhyay, Semiconductor Physics and Applications by Balkanski and Wallis.