本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

起司濃湯

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
餐廳供應含四種起司的濃湯

起司濃湯的主材料是起司,與牛奶、清湯高湯一起作濃湯基底。可以添加多種其它材料,也有各式形態各異的起司濃湯。這是美國、哥倫比亞、墨西哥、瑞士以及西藏飲食中,都可以見到類似的食品。大量生產的起司濃湯可能加入了食品添加物促進保存與增添風味。

概觀[编辑]

餐廳供應的,用藍紋起司製作的奶酪糊(Churu)
花椰菜起司濃湯

起司濃湯存在於各地飲食中,如:美國飲食、哥倫比亞飲食、墨西哥飲食瑞士飲食以及西藏飲食。[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]Mote de queso」是哥倫比亞科爾多瓦省的傳統起司濃湯。[8]西班牙語中「起司濃湯」是「sopa de queso」,1893年的一份墨西哥食譜中就收錄了這道菜。[4]瑞士的起司濃湯稱為Kassuppe」,是瑞士中部的特色菜。[9]Churu 」則是西藏的起司濃湯,所有用起司就稱為「churu」。[6][7]

材料[编辑]

起司是起司濃湯的主材料,通常會削成絲或小塊。[10][11]可以使用硬質的起司如:切達起司格呂耶爾起司帕馬森起司[12][13][14];也可使用軟質起司:農家起司、高達起司、莫恩斯特起司、克索布蘭可起司、奇瓦瓦起司等。[15][16][17][18][19] 起司可以增添湯的風味和營養價值。[20]加工起司(維菲塔起司也是[21])有時候會用以代替天然起司,例如經過巴氏殺菌的起司和使用巴氏殺菌起司的食物。[22]一些風味濃郁的起司濃湯可能含有較多的脂肪,可能添加了高脂肪的材料如:奶油和鮮奶油,[23]還有起士裡的脂肪。可以改用低脂或零脂起司、零脂牛奶及零脂高湯等,以降低湯品的脂肪含量。[24][25]

牛奶和/或清湯如:雞清湯或高湯[11][26][27]是起司濃湯的液體基底。其餘材料包括:半對半鮮奶油、啤酒、麵包屑、奶油、蛋、洋蔥、洋蔥汁、大蒜,蔬菜則有花椰菜、青花菜、胡蘿蔔和芹菜、香料、調味料等。[10][11][13][27][28]培根碎、啤酒和碎花椰菜等可以增添起司濃湯的風味。有時會灑上麵包丁。[29]

烹調[编辑]

起司濃湯如果直接加熱很容易燒焦,因此有時會用隔水燉鍋烹調[20][27][30]以避免燒焦。[11]起司濃湯也可以用隔水燉鍋來重複加熱。[11]

大量生產[编辑]

大量生產的起司濃湯可能含有添加物以促進風味或保存。例如: 某些大量生產的起司濃湯為了增添風味,含有修飾奶油脂的成分。[31]一些大量生產的起司濃湯也會使用果膠中的膠質代替脂肪。[32]

起司濃湯列表[编辑]

Beer cheese soup
啤酒起司濃湯
莫札瑞拉濃湯
餐廳供應的,用藍紋起司製作的奶酪糊(Churu)

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Ojakangas, B.A. Great Old-Fashioned American Recipes. University of Minnesota Press. 2005: 80 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-4529-0759-8. 
  2. ^ Davidson, A.; Jaine, T. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford Companions. OUP Oxford. 2014: 165 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-19-104072-6. 
  3. ^ Fodor's Travel Guides. Fodor's Switzerland. Full-color Travel Guide. Fodor's Travel Publications. 2015: 157 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-101-87872-9 (巴斯克语). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Recetas practicas para la señora de casa sobre cocina. Imp. de J.A. Rodríguez. 1893: 17 [1 July 2016]. 
  5. ^ Jinich 2016, p. 16.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Wright, C.A. The Best Soups in the World. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2011: 368 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-544-17779-6. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Fodor's Montreal & Quebec City. Fodor's Travel Publications: 59. 2005 [1 July 2016]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Mote de queso: cucharadas de tradición cordobesa. Radio Nacional de Colombia. June 16, 2016 [July 1, 2016] (西班牙语). 
  9. ^ Fodor, Eugene. Switzerland. D. McKay. 1971: 108 [1 July 2016]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Good Housekeeping: Everyday Cook Book. Good Housekeeping library. Hearst Books. 2002: 276 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-58816-210-6. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 American Heart Association. American Heart Association Healthy Fats, Low-Cholesterol Cookbook. American Heart Association. Potter/Tenspeed/Harmony. 2015: 62 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-553-44716-3. 
  12. ^ Edwards, L. Edwardian Cooking: The Unofficial Downton Abbey Cookbook. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. 2014: 66 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-62872-316-8. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Dolby, R. The Cook's Dictionary and House-keeper's Directory: A New Family Manual of Cookery and Confectionery, on a Plan of Ready Reference, Never Hitherto Attempted. Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley. 1830: 139 [July 1, 2016]. 
  14. ^ Dolby, Richard. The Cook's Dictionary. Henry Colburn & Richard Bentley. 1832: 337 [July 1, 2016]. 
  15. ^ Schneider, D. The Mexican Slow Cooker. Potter/TenSpeed/Harmony. 2012: 31 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-60774-317-0. 
  16. ^ Scheele, C. More Old World Breads...and Soups Too. iUniverse. 2000: 114 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-595-16122-5. 
  17. ^ White, N. Jacksonville Food Trucks: Stories & Recipes from the Road. American Palate. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. 2015: 79 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-62585-299-1. 
  18. ^ Wright, C.A. Hot & Cheesy. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2012: pt17 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-544-18686-6. 
  19. ^ Jinich 2016, p. 20.
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Page, Logan Waller. Cheese soups and vegetables cooked with cheese. Issues 476-500. Farmers' Bulletins. U.S. Department of Agriculture: 487. 1912 [1 July 2016]. 
  21. ^ Burkhalter, B.B. Raised on Old-Time Country Cooking: A Companion to the Trilogy. AuthorHouse. 2012: 350 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-4772-8720-0. 
  22. ^ Food Engineering. Volume 41. Chilton Company. 1969 [30 June 2016]. Kraft Pasteurized Process American Cheese, or Kraft Super Blend Pasteurized Process Cheese Food have taken their permanent place among creamy cheese dishes — cheese soups, cheese spreads, and cheese dips. Whatever the cheese ... 
  23. ^ Lund, J.A.M.; Alpert, B. Cooking Healthy with a Food Processor: A Healthy Exchanges Cookbook. Healthy Exchanges Cookbooks. Perigee Book. 2006: 35 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-399-53281-8. 
  24. ^ Woodruff, S. The Best Kept-Secrets of Healthy Cooking: Your Culinary Resource to Hundreds of Delicious Kitchen-Tested Dishes. Avery Publishing Group. 1999: 15 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-89529-880-5. 
  25. ^ Mycoskie, P. I'm Listening: The Butter Busters Cookbook Companion. Grand Central Publishing. 2009: 380 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-446-56947-7. 
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 26.2 Hulin, B. The Everything Soup, Stew, and Chili Cookbook. F+W Media. 2009: 102 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-4405-2113-3. 
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Mendelssohn Club (Rockford, Ill.). The Mendelssohn Club Cook Book. Hermilda Listeman Cookbook Collection. Horton Print. Company. 1909: 37 [July 1, 2016]. 
  28. ^ Cornell Reading-courses ... Course for the Farm. New York State College of Agriculture. 1915: 16 [July 1, 2016]. 
  29. ^ Broccoli & Cheese Soup. ABC News. June 30, 2016 [July 1, 2016]. 
  30. ^ Broccoli-Cheese Soup. Philly.com. July 1, 2016 [July 1, 2016]. 
  31. ^ Furia, T.E. CRC Handbook of Food Additives, Second Edition. Taylor & Francis. 1980: 106 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-8493-0543-6. 
  32. ^ Wiley. Kirk-Othmer Food and Feed Technology, 2 Volume Set. Wiley. 2007: 405 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-470-17448-7. 
  33. ^ Berghoff, C.; Ryan, N.; Ryan, N.R. The Berghoff Cafe Cookbook: Berghoff Family Recipes for Simple, Satisfying Food. Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC. 2009: 30 [July 2, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-7407-9069-0. 
  34. ^ Cheddar beer soup - epicurious.com
  35. ^ Villas, J. The Glory of Southern Cooking: Recipes for the Best Beer-Battered Fried Chicken, Cracklin' Biscuits,Carolina Pulled Pork, Fried Okra, Kentucky Cheese. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2012: 126 [July 3, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-544-18656-9. 
  36. ^ Andrews, C.; Hirsheimer, C. The Country Cooking of Ireland. Chronicle Books LLC. 2012: 36 [July 3, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-4521-2405-6. 
  37. ^ Gravette, A.; Cook, D. Traditional Irish Cooking: The Fare of Old Ireland and Its History. Garnet Publishing, Limited. 2008: 27 [July 3, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-85964-345-7. 
  38. ^ Paré, J. The Cheese Book. Company's Coming. Company's Coming Publishing, Limited. 2002: 145 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-895455-89-2. 
  39. ^ Sonoran cheese soup recipe页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) - Chef2chef Culinary Portal
  40. ^ McNair, J.K.; Brabant, P. James McNair's Soups. Chronicle Books. 1990: 33 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-87701-753-0. 
  41. ^ Mccall, Davina. Davina's Smart Carbs: Cauliflower cheese soup. Mail Online. January 3, 2016 [July 1, 2016]. 
  42. ^ Joachim, D.; Hoffman, M. Prevention's The Healthy Cook: The Ultimate Illustrated Kitchen Guide to Great Low-Fat Food. Rodale Books. 2000: 118 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-57954-243-6. 
  43. ^ The Railroad Yardmaster. Railroad Yardmasters of America. 1967 [30 June 2016]. 
  44. ^ Kirsch, H. Soup Recipe Scrapbook. Trafford Publishing. 2013: 16 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-4669-8761-6. 
  45. ^ Wallace, L. Mr. Sunday's Soups. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2010: 226–227 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-544-18744-3. 
  46. ^ 46.0 46.1 46.2 Wangmo, Tsering; Houshmand, Zara. The Lhasa Moon Tibetan Cookbook. Snow Lion Publications. 1998 [1 July 2016]. ISBN 1559391049. 
  47. ^ Churu recipe.
  48. ^ Cornell Reading-courses ... Course for the Farm. New York State College of Agriculture. 1915: 25 [July 3, 2016]. 
  49. ^ Cottage cheese soup 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2011-07-16.. iFood.tv.
  50. ^ Stradley, L.; Cook, A.; Anderson, B. What's Cooking America. Falcon Series. Globe Pequot Press. 2000: 334 [July 2, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-56044-792-4. 
  51. ^ Wheeler, Jason. Wildflower Bread Company's got breakfast, lunch, dinner figured out. dcourier. March 10, 2016 [July 3, 2016]. 
  52. ^ Cream of Cheese Soup. Good Housekeeping. Phelps Publishing Company: 94. 1907 [1 July 2016]. 
  53. ^ McCausland-Gallo, P. Secrets of Colombian Cooking. New Cookbooks Series. Hippocrene Books. 2004: 41 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-7818-1025-8. 
  54. ^ Caribe.net - "La Mulata" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2011-07-08.
  55. ^ Food & Wine. Volume 28. nternational Review of Food & Wine Associates: iv, 3. 2005 [2 July 2016]. 
  56. ^ McCracken, J. Healthy Carb Cookbook For Dummies. Wiley. 2011: 102 [July 3, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-118-07012-3 (西班牙语). 
  57. ^ Byrn, A. The Dinner Doctor. Rodale. 2004: 97 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-59486-092-8. 
  58. ^ Gardens, Better Homes and; Books, B.H.G. Simple Slow Cooker Recipes. Better Homes & Gardens Cooking. Meredith Books. 2004: 72 [July 1, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-696-21834-7. 
  59. ^ Dolby, R. The Cook's Dictionary ... New Edition, Carefully Revised, Etc. [With Plates.]. Henry Colburn&Richard Bentley. 1832: 337 [July 3, 2016]. 

參考書目[编辑]

深入閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]