足球類運動

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各模式的足球,由上而下,由左至右分別為: 足球澳式足球國際規則足球英语International rules football橄欖球爭球,聯盟式橄欖球美式足球

足球類運動是一個團隊運動的大種類,並在在不同程度上用腳踢進入球门以達到目的。廣義的“足球”一词英语Football (word)被理解為指出該詞出現在區域語境中最流行的足球形式。在某些地方,俗稱“足球”的運動包括:英式足球(在一些國家用soccer)、烤盤足球 (特別是美式足球加拿大式足球)、澳式足球拉格比足球(或聯盟式橄欖球橄欖球)和蓋爾式足球[1][2]這些不同的足球變化被稱為足球原則

歷史上可以看到各種形式的足球,通常是受歡迎的小農英语peasant遊戲。[3][4]

球場的大小比較

足球模式板[编辑]

足球 劍橋規則 (1848–1863) 足球 (1863–)
室內
沙灘 (1992–)
五人制 (1930–)
雪菲爾規則 (1857–1877)
帕拉林匹克
街頭
聯盟式橄欖球做輕微修改 美式足球 (1869[10]-) 奪旗式美式足球, 室內美式足球 (1987–)
拉格比規則[11]
加拿大式足球 (1861–) 奪旗式美式足球[12]
橄欖球 (1871–)
七人制橄欖球 (1883–)
聯盟式橄欖球 (1895–)
九人制
七人制聯盟式橄欖球
接觸式足球
拉格比規則與其他英格蘭學校遊戲[13] 澳式足球 (1859–) 國際規則 (1967–)
蓋爾式 (1887–)

足球模式分支樹[编辑]

另見[编辑]

註解[编辑]

  1. ^ Reilly, Thomas; Gilbourne, D. Science and football: a review of applied research in the football code. Journal of Sports Science. 2003, 21: 693–705. doi:10.1080/0264041031000102105. 
  2. ^ Editorial: Soccer – or should we say football – must change. 12 June 2014. New Zealanders on the way to their local rugby grounds should still be talking of "going to the football" 
  3. ^ History of Rugby in Australia. Rugby Football History. [11 January 2012]. 
  4. ^ Bailey, Steven. Living Sports History: Football at Winchester, Eton and Harrow. The Sports Historian. 1995, 15 (1): 34–53. doi:10.1080/17460269508551675. 
  5. ^ History of Rugby in Australia. Rugby Football History. [11 January 2012]. 
  6. ^ Bailey, Steven. Living Sports History: Football at Winchester, Eton and Harrow. The Sports Historian. 1995, 15 (1): 34–53. doi:10.1080/17460269508551675. 
  7. ^ Perkin, Harold. Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British empire and commonwealth. The International Journal of the History of Sport. 1989, 6 (2): 145–155. doi:10.1080/09523368908713685. 
  8. ^ Reilly, Thomas; Doran, D. Science and Gaelic football: A revie. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2001, 19 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1080/026404101750095330. 
  9. ^ Bale, J. Sports Geography. Taylor & Francis. 2002: 43. ISBN 0-419-25230-4. 
  10. ^ The first game of American football is widely cited as a game played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams, Rutgers and Princeton. But the game was played under rules based on the association football rules of the time. During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby code.
  11. ^ In 1845, the first rules of rugby were written by Rugby School pupils. But various rules of rugby had existed until the foundation of the 橄欖球聯合會 in 1871.
  12. ^ There are Canadian rules [1] established by Football Canada. Apart from this, there are also rules [2] established by IFAF.
  13. ^ 一些歷史學家支持這一理論,主要的影響是橄欖球和英格蘭公立學校產生的其他遊戲。 另一方面,也有歷史學家支持澳大利亞規定足球和蓋爾足球的理論有一些共同的起源。See Origins of Australian rules football.

參考資料[编辑]

  • Eisenberg, Christiane and Pierre Lanfranchi, eds. (2006): Football History: International Perspectives; Special Issue, Historical Social Research 31, no. 1. 312 pages.
  • Green, Geoffrey (1953); The History of the Football Association; Naldrett Press, London
  • Mandelbaum, Michael (2004); The Meaning of Sports; Public Affairs, ISBN 1-58648-252-1
  • Williams, Graham (1994); The Code War; Yore Publications, ISBN 1-874427-65-8