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转基因食品争议

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转基因食品争议(英語:Genetically modified food controversies)是指关于食用转基因作物及其副产品、在食品生产中利用基因工程技术等方面的争议。这场争议与消费者、生物技术公司、政府管理者、非政府组织和科学家都密切相关。关于基因改造食品的争论核心包括:转基因食品的上市标注、政府管理者的责任、相关科学研究的目的、转基因作物对环境和健康的影响、对害虫之抗药性的影响、对农业生产者的影响和转基因作物对满足全球粮食需求的作用。

科学界的共识是此类转基因作物及其副产品的健康安全风险并不高于传统食品[1][2][3],也就是说转基因作物的安全性是可以保证的。对转基因食品的安全评估始于鉴定该食品是否与同类非转基因食品「实质等同」,后者是那些已经被确认无害的传统食品,而且目前还没有报告宣称转基因食品在人身上造成疾病[4][5][6],但公众还是担心转基因食品有害健康。虽然针对转基因生物产品的标注在许多国家是强制性的,但美国和加拿大并不执行类似政策,在市场上转基因食品和传统食品是没有差别的。

参考来源[编辑]

  1. ^ American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Board of Directors (2012). Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers
  2. ^ A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001-2010) (PDF). Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food. European Union. 2010. ISBN 978-92-79-16344-9. doi:10.2777/97784. 「过去超过25年间的研究,有着超过130个研究项目,多余500个独立研究小组参与,都得出结论,生物技术,特别是转基因食品,并不比传统育种的食物有更大的风险」("The main conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of more than 25 years of research, and involving more than 500 independent research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies.")(p. 16) 
  3. ^ Ronald, Pamela. Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security. Genetics. 2011, 188 (1): 11–20. PMC 3120150. PMID 21546547. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.128553. 
  4. ^ American Medical Association (2012). Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Labeling of Bioengineered Foods 「转基因食物已经被食用了近二十年,在此期间,没有一个经过同行评审的科学报告表明它对人类健康有不良效应。」("Bioengineered foods have been consumed for close to 20 years, and during that time, no overt consequences on human health have been reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature.")(page 1)
  5. ^ United States Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (2004). Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects. National Academies Press. Free full-text. National Academies Press. pp R9-10: 「相比传统食物生产造成的健康危害,类似的严重健康影响还没能被证明同样会由转基因技术产生。这可能是因为转基因生物的研发者进行了大量分析,验证每个生物表现型都是令人满意的,并确保食物关键成分中不会产生不在计划中的变化。」 ("In contrast to adverse health effects that have been associated with some traditional food production methods, similar serious health effects have not been identified as a result of genetic engineering techniques used in food production. This may be because developers of bioengineered organisms perform extensive compositional analyses to determine that each phenotype is desirable and to ensure that unintended changes have not occurred in key components of food.")
  6. ^ Key S, Ma JK, Drake PM. Genetically modified plants and human health. J R Soc Med. June 2008, 101 (6): 290–8. PMC 2408621. PMID 18515776. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.070372. +pp 292-293. 「超过15年间,转基因作物及其副产品被全世界千百万人消费,没有造成疾病效应。」("Foods derived from GM crops have been consumed by hundreds of millions of people across the world for more than 15 years, with no reported ill effects (or legal cases related to human health).") 

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