通布卡语

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通布卡語
Chitumbuka
母语国家和地区馬拉維, 坦桑尼亞, 讚比亞
母语使用人数1,546,000(2009-2010)
語系
文字
語言代碼
ISO 639-2tum
ISO 639-3tum
Glottologtumb1250[1]
語言瞭望站99-AUS-wc (+ chi-Kamanga) incl. varieties 99-AUS-wca...-wcl

通布卡语(Tumbuka language,又名ChitumbukaCitumbuka,意為通布卡人英语Tumbuka people的語言)是班图语一支,主要在马拉维北部地区和赞比亚隆達濟地区使用。[2] 通布卡语与齐切瓦语塞纳语英语Sena language属于同一语群( 班圖語言的格思裡分類英语Guthrie classification of Bantu languages )。 [3]

根據1998年的《世界年鉴》估计大约有2,000,000名通布卡语使用者,尽管其他来源估计使用人数要少得多。据说大多数讲通布卡语的人都住在马拉维。[2] 通布卡语是马拉维北部地区使用最广泛的语言,尤其是在倫比姆祖祖姆津巴地区。[4]

马拉维城市中使用的通布卡语(許多詞借用斯瓦希里语齐切瓦语 )与乡村中使用的通布卡语存在很大差异。 [5] 姆津巴方言則受到祖鲁语影响,[6] 在有些詞彙上甚至出現搭嘴音,這在通布卡语其它方言並沒有发生。

自1968年以来,由于馬拉維總統黑斯廷斯·卡穆祖·班达的「一個民族,一种语言」的政策,通布卡语的使用受到了影响,它失去了在马拉维官方語言的地位, 導致通布卡语在学校課程,国家广播电台和印刷媒体中禁止使用。 [7] 随着1994年馬拉維民主化和多党制的到来,在馬拉維的广播上再次开播通布卡語的节目,但是通布卡的书籍和其他出版物的数量仍然很少。 [8]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). 通布卡語. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Michigan State University African Studies Center information page 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  3. ^ Kiso (2012), pp.21ff.
  4. ^ University of Malawi (2006) Language Mapping Survey for Northern Malawi.
  5. ^ Kamwendo (2004), p.282.
  6. ^ University of Malawi (2006), p.27.
  7. ^ Kamwendo (2004), p.278.
  8. ^ See Language Mapping Survey for Northern Malawi (2006), pp.38-40 for a list of publications.

参考书目[编辑]

  • Botne, Robert (1999). "Future and distal -ka-'s: Proto-Bantu or nascent form(s)?". In: Jean-Marie Hombert and Larry M. Hyman (eds.), Bantu Historical Linguistics: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information, pp. 473-515.
  • Chase, Robert (2004). "A Comparison of Demonstratives in the Karonga and Henga Dialects of Tumbuka". Undergraduate paper. Amherst: Dept. of Linguistics, Univ. of Massachusetts.
  • Chavula, Jean Josephine (2016). "Verbal derivation and valency in Chitumbuka". Leiden University doctoral thesis.
  • Downing, Laura J. (2006). "The Prosody and Syntax of Focus in Chitumbuka". ZAS Papers in Linguistics 43, 55-79.
  • Downing, Laura J. (2008). "Focus and prominence in Chichewa, Chitumbuka and Durban Zulu". ZAS Papers in Linguistics 49, 47-65.
  • Downing, Laura J. (2012). "On the (Non-)congruence of Focus and Prominence in Tumbuka". Selected Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference on African Linguistics, ed. Michael R. Marlo et al., 122-133. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
  • Downing, Laura J. (2017). "Tone and intonation in Chichewa and Tumbuka". In Laura J. Downing & Annie Rialland (eds) Intonation in African Tone Languages. de Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, pp. 365–392.
  • Downing, Laura J. (2019). "Tumbuka prosody: Between tone and stress". In: Emily Clem et al (eds). Theory and Description in African Linguistics: Selected papers from the 47th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, 75-94. Also available online at: [1]
  • Elmslie, Walter Angus (1923): Introductory Grammar of the Tumbuka Language. Livingstonia Mission Press.
  • Kamwendo, Gregory H. (2004). Kamwendo "Your Chitumbuka is Shallow. It's not the Real Chitumbuka: Linguistic Purism Among Chitumbuka Speakers in Malawi", Nordic Journal of African Studies 13(3): 275–288.
  • Kishindo, Pascal J. et Allan L. Lipenga (2006). Parlons citumbuka : langue et culture du Malawi et de la Zambie, L'Harmattan, Paris, Budapest, Kinshasa, 138 pages. ISBN 2-296-00470-9
  • Kishindo, Pascal J. (ed), Jean J. Chavula and others (2018). Mung'anamulira mazgo wa Citumbuka (Citumbuka dictionary). Centre for Language Studies, University of Malawi. ISBN 978-99960-9-610-5
  • Kiso, Andrea (2012). "Tense and Aspect in Chichewa, Citumbuka, and Cisena". Ph.D. Thesis. Stockholm University.
  • McNicholl, Duncan (2010). "The No-Nonsense Guide to Learning Chitumbuka: Volume 1".
  • Moto, Francis (1999). "The Tonal Phonology of Bantu Ideophones". Malilime: Malawian Journal of Linguistics no.1, 100-120. (pp. 112–119 deals with tone in Chitumbuka ideophones).
  • Mphande, L. (1989). "A Phonological Analysis of the Ideophone in Chitumbuka". Ph.D. Dissertation. The University of Texas, Austin.
  • Shiozaki, Lisa (2004). "Concordial agreement in the Karonga dialect of Tumbuka". Undergraduate paper. Amherst: Dept. of Linguistics, Univ. of Massachusetts.
  • Turner, W.M. (1952). Tumbuka–Tonga–English Dictionary The Hetherwick Press, Blantyre, Nyasaland (now Malawi).
  • University of Malawi Centre for Language Studies (2006). "Language Mapping Survey for Northern Malawi".
  • Vail, Hazen Leroy (1971). "The noun classes of Tumbuka". African studies, v. 30, 1, p. 35-59.
  • Vail, Hazen Leroy (1972). "Aspects of the Tumbuka Verb". Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin.

外部链接[编辑]