運動功能減退症

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運動功能減退症
分類系統及外部資源
MeSH D018476

運動功能減退症是指一種身體運動能力下降的病症[1]。這種病往往與其他疾病相關連,例如:基底節疾病(如帕金森氏症)、心理健康失調和因疾病而長期不作任何活動所致。

運動功能減退症包含下列光譜的毛病:

  • 無運動症(Akinesia):又名運動不能症,病人會因為中樞神經系統無法或提不起勁去作任何身體移動。常見的例子是嚴重的柏金遜症患者。Common in severe cases of Parkinson's disease, akinesia is a result of severely diminished dopaminergic cell activity in the direct pathway of movement.
  • Bradykinesia (brady-, "slow", kinisi, "motion") is characterized by slowness of movement and has been linked to Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the basal ganglia. Rather than being a slowness in initiation (akinesia), bradykinesia describes a slowness in the execution of movement. It is one of the 3 key symptoms of parkinsonism, which are bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity. Bradykinesia is also the cause of what is normally referred to as "stone face" (expressionless face) among those with Parkinson's. A very detailed explanation of this topic can be found at http://www.wemove.org/bradykinesia.
  • Freezing is characterized by an inability to move muscles in any desired direction.
  • Rigidity results when there is an increase in muscle tone that causes resistance to passive movement throughout the whole range of motion. There are different types of rigidity. The form just described is the so-called 'lead-pipe' rigidity seen especially in Parkinson's disease. 'Cogwheel' rigidity is a combination of rigidity and tremor which presents as a jerky resistance to passive movement. Spasticity is a special form of rigidity that is present only at the start of passive movement. It is rate dependent and only elicited upon a high speed movement. These various forms of rigidity can be seen in different forms of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.
  • Postural instability: loss of ability to maintain an upright posture.

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