達薩 (梵語)

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達薩梵語दास dāsa),在印度古文集《梨俱吠陀》和考底利耶的《Arthaśāstra英语政事論》中,[1]意指雅利安人之敵。[2]這個詞後來有其他含義,如「僕人」或「奴隸」或宗教意義上的「神僕」、「臣服於神的人」、「發願起誓」或「奉獻」,devadasa。

達薩經常被認為是富裕的非印歐牲畜飼養者。最初他們拒绝接受吠陀儀軌但後來接受了,另兩字dasyu和asura可能是此字的變體,某些學者譯為「魔鬼」、「有害的超自然力」、「奴僕」、「野蠻人」,視語境而定。[2][3]

種族詮釋[编辑]

在《梨俱吠陀》中Dasa、Dasyu和類似的詞語(比如Pani)有時與詞語krsna或asikni(“黑色”)聯合出現,這經常用作對吠陀經典做出種族詮釋的基礎。達薩人被描述成扁鼻、無鼻、黑皮肤,可被認為是印度原居民。

達薩的宗教[编辑]

他们崇拜龍與陽具(林伽),梨俱吠陀有因陀羅金剛打敗他們的龍(弗栗多)的記載。他們後來成為婆羅門教首陀羅

後期吠陀用法[编辑]

坦米爾語中,tontai、達薩、僕人或奴隸一般指得都是毗濕奴黑天的敬虔奉獻者。[4]

而在高迪亞毗濕奴派英语Gaudiya Vaishnava神學體系的敘述dāsa-bhūto harer eva nānyasvaiva kadācana中,bhuto(生靈)永遠服務(dasa)於至尊主(Hari英语Hari)。[5]因此,svayam bhagavan英语svayam bhagavan Krishna(黑天主神)的毗濕奴派信眾指得就是Hari Dasa稱號中的dasa[6]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Bhagavan Shri Shanmukha Anantha Natha and Shri Ma Kristina Baird for the correct, nonracial meaning of the terms Dasyus and Asuras in their work "Divine Initiation"(ISBN 0-9582324-0-7)by Shri Kali Publications
  • Ambedkar, B.R.(1946)Who were the Shudras?
  • Aurobindo, Sri. 1971. The Secret of the Veda. Pondicherry: Shri Aurobindo Ashram.
  • Bryant, Edwin: The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. 2001. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513777-9
  • J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande. 1999. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Elst, Koenraad Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. 1999. ISBN 81-86471-77-4
  • Frawley, David The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India, 1995. New Delhi: Voice of India; In Search of the Cradle of Civilization, Chapter 6
  • Hock, Hans. 1999b, Through a Glass Darkly: Modern "Racial" Interpretations vs. Textual and General Prehistoric Evidence on Arya and Dasa/Dasyu in Vedic Indo-Aryan Society." in Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia.
  • Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914. "Did the Dravidians of India Obtain Their Culture from Aran Immigrant [sic]." Anthropos 1-15.
  • Macdonell, A.A. and Keith, A.B. 1912. The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects.
  • Parpola, Asko: 1988, The Coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the Cultural and Ethnic Identity of the Dasas; The problem of the Aryans and the Soma.
  • Rg Veda 1854-57. Rig-Veda Samhita. tr. H.H. Wilson. London: H.Allen and Co.
  • Schetelich, Maria. 1990, "The problem ot the "Dark Skin"(Krsna Tvac)in the Rgveda." Visva Bharati Annals 3:244-249.
  • Sethna, K.D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
  • Talageri, Shrikant G. 2000. The Rig Veda - A historical analysis.
  • Trautmann, Thomas R. 1997, Aryans and British India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Witzel, Michael. 1995b, 325, fn, "Rgvedic History" in The Indo-Aryans of South Asia.
  1. ^ R.P. Kangle (1960), The Kautiliya Arthasastra - a critical edition, Vol. 2 and 3, University of Bombay Studies, ISBN 978-8120800427
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Barbara West (2008),亞洲和大洋洲人種百科,ISBN 978-0816071098,182頁
  3. ^ Wash Edward Hale (1999),早期吠陀宗教中的Ásura一字,Motilal Barnarsidass著,ISBN 978-8120800618, pages 159-169
  4. ^ Steven P. Hopkins. 妝點華美珠寶的飾品:獻給主神的愛情詩. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2007: 160. ISBN 0-19-532639-3. 
  5. ^ Bhaktivedanta Swami英语Bhaktivedanta Swami, A. C.(1972). The 薄伽梵歌如其所是英语Bhagavad-gita As It Is, second edition. New York: Macmillan.
  6. ^ Talbot, Cynthia. 印度前殖民時期的實況:中世紀安得拉邦的社會、宗教和風貌. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2001: 81. ISBN 0-19-513661-6.