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遲發性肌肉痛

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遲發性肌肉痛英语:delayed onset muscle soreness, DOMS)是一種運動之後24—72小時出現的肌肉痠痛或不舒適。通常會持續兩至三日。

原因[编辑]

舊式理論普遍認為該痛症為乳酸積聚所引起,但此说法已经基本被否定。因为也能产生乳酸堆积的肌纤维的收缩性运动不会造成遲發性肌肉痛;[1]只有肌纤维的伸展性运动才会造成此症。此外,多项对乳酸的研究表明,运动后一小时内乳酸就会降低到正常水平,因此不能在更晚的时候引发疼痛。[2]

近期醫學研究證實真正起因為肌肉伸展時,因為不習慣運動量,肌肉纖維有微細損傷。[3]

另有一種說法是痛症並不是因為肌肉細胞受損,而是肌內強化過程之中細胞膨脹,壓住神經血管,引致延遲性肌肉痠痛。[4] [5][6]

DOMS在1902年被Theodore Hough英语Theodore Hough指出是肌肉断裂的结果。[7]这些断裂发生在肌原纤维节在Z轴的显微病变[1] 被归因于肌肉拉伸运动(eccentric exercise)时肌肉伸展而增加的张力。[8]这会引起肌动蛋白肌凝蛋白的桥式交叉(cross-bridge)在松弛之前的分离,最终导致剩余活动的运动单位英语motor units承受更大的张力。[8]这增加了加重恶化的风险,损害了肌原纤维节。当在这些结构上发生微创伤英语microtrauma时,肌肉组织中的{[tsl|en|nociceptor|痛觉感受器}}受到刺激引发了痛觉。[2]

另一项对DOMS引发疼痛的解释是"外排英语Efflux (microbiology)"理论。微创伤后,正常存储于肌浆网在受损肌肉上蓄积。细胞呼吸作用被抑制,所需的主动运输钙回到肌浆网三磷酸腺苷减慢。累积的钙 激活了蛋白酶磷脂酶导致肌蛋白分解与变性。[9] 这引发了炎症, 痛觉是由于积累的组胺前列腺素所致。[2][10]

減輕痛楚[编辑]

  1. 熱身運動及拉筋。[11][12] [13]
  2. 止痛藥,例如阿士匹靈
  3. 任何适当增加痛处血流量的措施。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Armstrong, RB. Mechanisms of exercise-induced delayed onset muscular soreness: a brief review. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. December 1984, 16 (6): 529–38. PMID 6392811. doi:10.1249/00005768-198412000-00002. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Cheung, K; Hume, P; Maxwell, L. Delayed onset muscle soreness: treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). 2003, 33 (2): 145–64. PMID 12617692. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333020-00005. 
  3. ^ Roth, S. (2006, January 23). Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness? ScientificAmerica.com. Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  4. ^ Connolly, D. A., Sayers, S. P. & McHugh, M. P. (2003) Treatment and prevention of delayed onset muscle soreness (abstract.) Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 17(1):197-208. Retrieved from PubMed.gov on July 24, 2006.
  5. ^ Szymanski, D. (2003). Recommendations for the avoidance of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Strength and Conditioning Journal 23(4): 7–13.
  6. ^ Ji-Guo, Y. (2003). Re-evaluation of exercise-induced muscle soreness: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Abstract of unpublished doctoral dessertation, Umeyå Universittet, Sweden. ISBN 91-7305-503-4
  7. ^ Hough, Theodore. Ergographic studies in muscular soreness. American Journal of Physiology. 1902, 1902 (7): 76–92. doi:10.1080/23267224.1902.10649879. ; Hough T. ERGOGRAPHIC STUDIES IN MUSCULAR FATIGUE AND SORENESS. J Boston Soc Med Sci. 1900, 5: 81–92. PMC 2048417. PMID 19971340. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Gulick, DT; Kimura, IF; Sitler, M; Paolone, A; Kelly, JD. Various treatment techniques on signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. Journal of athletic training. April 1996, 31 (2): 145–52. PMC 1318445. PMID 16558388. 
  9. ^ Stauber, WT. Eccentric action of muscles: physiology, injury, and adaptation. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 1989, 17: 157–85. PMID 2676546. doi:10.1249/00003677-198900170-00008. 
  10. ^ Armstrong, RB. Initial events in exercise-induced muscular injury. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. August 1990, 22 (4): 429–35. PMID 2205778. doi:10.1249/00005768-199008000-00002. 
  11. ^ Kennealy, D. (2002, November). Lets not throw the baby out with the bath water!! UK Athletics - Sports Sceince Panel Articles. Retreived on July 26, 2006.
  12. ^ Quinn, E. (n.d.). Stretching - What the research shows. About Health & Fitness - Sports Medicine. Retrieved on July 26, 2006.
  13. ^ Knudson, D. Stretch after the match, not before. Coaches' infoservice. Retreived on July 26, 2006.

外部連結[编辑]