钩枝藤科

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钩枝藤属
Ancistrocladus heyneanus 07.JPG
Ancistrocladus heyneanus英语Ancistrocladus heyneanus
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支: 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支: 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
目: 石竹目 Caryophyllales
科: 钩枝藤科 Ancistrocladaceae
Planch.英语Jules Émile Planchon ex Walp.英语Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers[1]
属: 钩枝藤属 Ancistrocladus
Wall.
物種

見內文

钩枝藤科(學名:Ancistrocladaceae)是被子植物的一個,旗下只有 钩枝藤属(學名:Ancistrocladus)這一個藤本植物,包括12-20個物。 本科物種只見於舊世界。

分類[编辑]

本科植物为常绿藤本,枝端有钩,借以攀缘,或依靠枝端缠绕攀缘;单互生,有托叶;两性,辐射对称,花瓣5;果实坚果。最新发现其中某些种类可提取抗爱滋病的药物。

1981年的克朗奎斯特分类法将其列在堇菜目,1998年根据基因亲缘关系分类的APG 分类法认为应该放在石竹目中,2003年经过修订的APG II 分类法维持原分类。

The 被子植物APG II分类法 (修订版), of 2003 (unchanged from the 被子植物APG分类法, of 1998), also recognizes this family and assigns it to the order 石竹目 in the clade 真双子叶植物.

Recent molecular and biochemical evidence (see the AP-Website) suggests the carnivorous taxa in the order 石竹目 (the families 茅膏菜科 and 猪笼草属 and the species 露叶毛毡苔科 and 穗葉藤屬) all belong to the same 演化支.[來源請求] This family Ancistrocladaceae would belong to this same clade, although the plants in the family are not carnivorous.[來源請求]

A close relationship between this family and the family 双钩叶科 (containing the carnivorous species T. peltatum) is supported by similar 花粉 and Petiole (botany)英语Petiole (botany) structure. The 克朗奎斯特分类法, 1981, placed the family in the order 堇菜目 (together with 双钩叶科). The Takhtajan system英语Takhtajan system placed the family in its own order Ancistrocladales.

Description[编辑]

The only genus in the family Ancistrocladaceae is Ancistrocladus, a little-known genus of about 20 species. These are palaeotropical英语palaeotropical, climbing, twining plants, found in lowland to submontane, wet to seasonal evergreen or swamp forests. The sparingly branched, sympodial英语sympodial is complex and can exceed 10 cm in diameter. It is along one side attached to the tree with grapnels (short, hooked lateral thorns, formed from modified stem apices), opposite to the leaves. Their are borne in dense, evergreen rosettes. They are entire, have short Petiole (botany)英语Petiole (botany)s and lack 托葉s. They have a single wax-secreting trichome英语trichome in the epidermal pits and glands on the abaxial surface. The flowers are small with a basally connate 花瓣, that are imbricate or rolled up lengthwise. The fruit is a nut with often wing-like accrescent 花萼s.

分佈[编辑]

本屬物種原生於非洲印度次大陸东南亚[2]。 分布在亚洲非洲热带地区。 在中国只有1种—钩枝藤Ancistrocladus tectorius(Lour. )Merr.),生长在海南

藥用價值[编辑]

Scientific interest in this genus has grown considerably because the 林冠 liana Ancistrocladus korupensis is considered a potential anti-艾滋病 source by the 美国国家癌症研究所 because of its highly effective mode of action against HIV.[來源請求] This plant was discovered in 喀麦隆 and subsequently recognized as a species new to science. Its ingredient michellamine英语michellamine B, an acetogenic napthyl isoquinoline 生物鹼, contained in mature leaves, is the active principle. Also, korupensamine E is a new 疟疾 drug extracted from the same plant.

Ancistrocladus abbreviatus has been used on traditional medicine in 加纳, as treatment against 麻疹 and 发热. The active ingredient is ancistrobrevine D, an 生物鹼 extracted from this plant.

Ancistrocline, an alkaloid derived from A. tectorius, is used against 痢疾.

Many other alkaloids are still being found in the other species.

物種[编辑]

Species accepted as of July 2014:[2]

  1. Ancistrocladus abbreviatus Airy Shaw - western Africa
  2. Ancistrocladus attenuatus Dyer - West Bengal, Myanmar, Andaman Islands
  3. Ancistrocladus barteri Scott-Elliot - western Africa
  4. Ancistrocladus benomensis Rischer & G.Bringmann - Pahang
  5. Ancistrocladus congolensis J.Léonard - Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Zaïre
  6. Ancistrocladus ealaensis J.Léonard - Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Zaïre, Central African Republic
  7. Ancistrocladus grandiflorus Cheek - Cameroon
  8. Ancistrocladus griffithii Planch. - Indochina, Andaman Islands
  9. Ancistrocladus guineensis Oliv. - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon
  10. Ancistrocladus hamatus (Vahl) Gilg - Sri Lanka
  11. Ancistrocladus heyneanus英语Ancistrocladus heyneanus Wall. ex J.Graham - southwestern India
  12. Ancistrocladus ileboensis Heubl, Mudogo & G.Bringmann - Congo-Brazzaville
  13. Ancistrocladus korupensis D.W.Thomas & Gereau - Nigeria, Cameroon
  14. Ancistrocladus letestui英语Ancistrocladus letestui Pellegr. - Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Zaïre, Central African Republic
  15. Ancistrocladus likoko J.Léonard - Congo-Brazzaville, Zaïre
  16. Ancistrocladus pachyrrhachis Warb. - Liberia
  17. Ancistrocladus robertsoniorum J.Léonard - Kenya
  18. Ancistrocladus tanzaniensis Cheek & Frim. - Tanzania
  19. 钩枝藤 Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour.) Merr. - Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Hainan, Borneo, Sumatra, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
  20. Ancistrocladus uncinatus Hutch. & Dalziel - Nigeria
  21. Ancistrocladus wallichii Planch. - Assam, Bangladesh, Andaman Islands

參考文獻[编辑]

  • anti-AIDS source
  • Taylor, Charlotte M.; Gereau, Roy E. & Walters, Gretchen M. Revision of Ancistrocladus Wall. (Ancistrocladaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2005, 92 (3): 360–399. JSTOR 40035478. [1]
  • Thomas, Duncan W.; Gereau, Roy E. Ancistrocladus korupensis (Ancistrocladaceae): A New Species of Liana from Cameroon. Novon (Novon, Vol. 3, No. 4). 1993, 3 (4): 494. JSTOR 3391401. doi:10.2307/3391401. [2]
  • Cheek, M. (2000a). A synoptic revision of Ancistrocladus (Ancistrocladaceae) in Africa, with a new species from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin

外部連結[编辑]