開放名單

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開放名單指除了政黨政黨以外選民可圈選名單中的候選人以決定當選順序,例如日本參議院選舉是選人及選黨,比利時眾議院選制為選人或選黨擇一,義大利眾議院則是依政黨公告名單填寫屬意候選人。

其缺點為,因為選民可以自由選人,使得在地方上有名氣或是知名度高的人容易當選,對比較沒有知名度的新秀候選人或專業領域候選人不利,容易成為變相的「黨內」複數選區制

制度[编辑]

開放式名單[编辑]

自由式名單[编辑]

採用這種制度的國家[编辑]

除開放名單外,部分國家或同時採用其他選舉方法。例如上議院選舉採用開放名單,下議院選舉採用其他方法。

歐洲[编辑]

美洲[编辑]

亞太[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Electoral Systems in Europe: An Overview. European Parliament in Brussels: European Centre for Parliamentary Research and Documentation. October 2000 [July 6, 2012]. (原始内容存档于2013年5月9日). 
  2. ^ Izborni zakon BiH, članovi 9.5 i 9.8 (PDF). [September 2, 2012]. 
  3. ^ Veliki vodič kroz glasovanje na izborima. Jutarnji list. [November 8, 2015] (克罗地亚语). 
  4. ^ Miriam A. Golden, Lucio Picci. Pork-Barrel Politics in Postwar Italy, 1953-94 (PDF). American Journal of Political Science. April 2008, 52 (2). doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00312.x. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Mainwaring, Scott. Politicians, Parties, and Electoral Systems: Brazil in Comparative Perspective (PDF). Comparative Politics. October 1991, 24 (1): 21–43. doi:10.2307/422200. 
  6. ^ Craig Arceneaux, Democratic Latin America, Routledge, 2015 ISBN 9781317348825 p.339
  7. ^ George Rodriguez, "Voters head to the polls in El Salvador to elect legislators, mayors", Tico Times, 28 February 2015
  8. ^ 西班牙语: "Papeletas para las elecciones 2015 (reproduction of ballot papers and explanation of the new voting system)", Tribunal Supremo Electoral
  9. ^ Matthew S. Shugart, "El Salvador joins the panachage ranks, president’s party holds steady", Fruits and Votes, 8 March 2015
  10. ^ "Honduras", Election Passport
  11. ^ Fijan elections office. Electoral decree 2014 (PDF). [3 July 2014]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于14 七月 2014). 
  12. ^ Bruno, Greg. Reshuffling the Political Deck. Backgrounder: Iraq's Political Landscape. Council on Foreign Relations. February 5, 2009 [July 8, 2012]. 
  13. ^ 日本版非拘束名簿式
  14. ^ http://gulfnews.com/news/mena/lebanon/lebanon-to-hold-parliamentary-elections-in-may-2018-1.2043638. [23 June 2017].  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  1. ^ Country Profile: Estonia. 2011-04-15 [June 30, 2012]. 
  2. ^ Country Profile: Latvia. 08/05/2011 [June 30, 2012]. 
  3. ^ Country Profile: Luxembourg. 02/04/2010 [07/08/2012]. 
  4. ^ Country Profile: Netherlands. 2010-10-14 [June 30, 2012]. 
  5. ^ Country Profile: Norway. 2011-03-18 [07/08/2012]. 
  6. ^ Country Profile: Slovakia. 02/01/2012 [June 30, 2012]. 
  7. ^ Country Profile: Slovenia. 2012-02-28 [June 30, 2012]. 
  8. ^ Country Profile: Sweden. ElectionGuide. Consortium for Elections and Political Process Strengthening. 2010-08-08 [07/08/2012]. 
  9. ^ Country Profile: Colombia. 2012-06-19 [07/08/2012]. 
  10. ^ Country Profile: Indonesia. 2010-11-26 [June 30, 2012]. 
  11. ^ Country Profile: Sri Lanka. 2010-02-18 [June 30, 2012]. 

外部連結[编辑]