間歇性斷食

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間歇性斷食(英語:Intermittent fasting,缩写:IF)是種間歇性的進食方式通稱,包括在一個期間內進行斷食與進食循環。間歇性斷食可能有助於體重減輕,產生相當於長期限制卡路里的效果。[1][2][3][4]

實踐與變化[编辑]

間歇性斷食可能是減少熱量攝取,減輕體重,減少體脂肪量及改善胰島素敏感性的可行策略。[1][3][4][5][6] 間歇性斷食方案可分為兩種:全天斷食法和限時進食法。

  • 全天斷食法包括定期斷食一整天。最嚴格的形式是隔日斷食(ADF),也就是 24 小時斷食,然後接著進入 24 小時非斷食期,不斷循環。[7] 改良版隔日斷食(ADMF)和 5:2 飲食 - 後者定義為每週五天不斷食,每週兩天進行斷食或改良的斷食 - 兩者都允許在斷食日攝取大約500-600卡路里。[1][3][8][9]
  • 限時進食法 (TRF) 意指每天只在有限的幾小時內進食。[10] 最常見的限時進食法 (TRF) 包括每天斷食16小時,只准在其餘的 8 小時內吃東西,通常每天在相同的時間內進食。[11] 較為彈性的做法是12小時的斷食配合12小時的飲食,或更嚴格形式是每天只吃一餐,這將涉及每天約23小時的斷食[12]

斷食期間可以輔助食用的東西因人而異,建議視健康情況調整。有些人主張只能喝水,有些人認為也能喝茶或咖啡(不加糖、奶)或添加甘味劑的零卡路里飲料,因為斷食可能會增加脫水的風險。[13] 斷食形式的變化型包括改良性斷食,如改良版隔日斷食 (ADMF),意指在斷食期間還是會攝入有限的熱量(正常值的20%),而不是完全不攝入任何熱量,以改善斷食者的耐受性和情緒。.[1][3] 間歇性斷食與週期性斷食(持續兩天或更多天)的持續時間不同(最多48小時).[1][14]

初步研究[编辑]

2018 年一份對肥胖者進行間歇性斷食實驗的文獻回顧表明,減少每週一至六天的卡路里攝入量,持續長達至少 12 週以上,平均可協助受試者減輕 7 公斤的體重。[15] 研究認為間歇性斷食法的減肥功效,與肥胖者在短期內連續斷食減肥,是同樣有效。[15] 但 2014 年的文獻回顧也警告,間歇性斷食尚未在兒童,老年人或體重不足者的情況下進行全面研究,因此可能對這些人群有害。[16]

在其他初步研究中,隔日斷食法 (ADF) 對體重減輕是有效的,其有效程度與卡路里限制相去不遠,[2][3] 肥胖者和體重正常者都觀察到了體重減輕的情況。[4] 且初步證據表明,幾種心血管問題和代謝指標(如體脂, 低密度脂蛋白 LDL三酸甘油酯,胰島素敏感性,血壓等)也得到改善。[6][17][18] 且隔日斷食 (ADF),也就是每隔 24 小時進行一次斷食的方法,並未影響除去脂肪的淨體重。[2][3][4]

間歇性斷食可能減少睡眠中的快速動眼期[1][18] 但其他對大腦功能的影響仍未確定。[16][19] 沒有任何證據證明斷食可以預防或治療癌症。[20]

关联条目[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Patterson, Ruth E.; Sears, Dorothy D. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting. Annual Review of Nutrition. 2017-08-21, 37 (1): 371–393. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064634. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Davis, C S; Clarke, R E; Coulter, S N; Rounsefell, K N; Walker, R E; Rauch, C E; Huggins, C E; Ryan, L. Intermittent energy restriction and weight loss: a systematic review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Nature). 2015-11-25, 70 (3): 292–299. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.195. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Johnstone, A. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?. International Journal of Obesity (Nature). 2014-12-26, 39 (5): 727–733. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.214. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Tinsley, Grant M.; La Bounty, Paul M. Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans. Nutrition Reviews. October 2015, 73 (10): 661–674. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv041. 
  5. ^ Patterson, R. E; Laughlin, G. A; Lacroix, A. Z; Hartman, S. J; Natarajan, L; Senger, C. M; Martínez, M. E; Villaseñor, A; Sears, D. D; Marinac, C. R; Gallo, L. C. Intermittent Fasting and Human Metabolic Health. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2015, 115 (8): 1203–1212. ISSN 2212-2672. PMC 4516560. PMID 25857868. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.02.018 (英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Mattson, M. P; Longo, V. D; Harvie, M. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes. Ageing Research Reviews. 2017, 39: 46–58. PMC 5411330. PMID 27810402. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2016.10.005. 
  7. ^ Varady, K. A. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: Which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?. Obesity Reviews. 2011, 12 (7): e593–601. PMID 21410865. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00873.x. 
  8. ^ Fisher, Roxanne. What is the 5:2 diet?. BBC GoodFood, Worldwide. 2016-06-01. 
  9. ^ Fleming, Amy. Fasting facts: is the 5:2 diet too good to be true?. The Guardian. 2015-01-27 [2018-01-18]. 
  10. ^ Rothschild, Jeff; Hoddy, Kristin K; Jambazian, Pera; Varady, Krista A. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: A review of human and animal studies. Nutrition Reviews. 2014, 72 (5): 308–18. PMID 24739093. doi:10.1111/nure.12104. 
  11. ^ Moro, Tatiana; Tinsley, Grant; Bianco, Antonino; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Pacelli, Quirico Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Palma, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Neri, Marco; Paoli, Antonio. Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2016, 14 (1): 290. PMC 5064803. PMID 27737674. doi:10.1186/s12967-016-1044-0. 
  12. ^ Stote, KS; Baer, DJ; Spears, K; Paul, DR; Harris, GK; Rumpler, WV; Strycula, P; Najjar, SS; Ferrucci, L; Ingram, D. K.; Longo, D. L.; Mattson, M. P. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults (PDF). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007, 85 (4): 981–8. PMC 2645638. PMID 17413096. 
  13. ^ CNN, Lisa Drayer. How to succeed at intermittent fasting. CNN. 2018-03-23 [2018-07-30]. 
  14. ^ Mattson, Mark P.; Longo, Valter D.; Harvie, Michelle. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes. Ageing Research Reviews. October 2017, 39: 46–58. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2016.10.005. 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 Harris, Leanne; Hamilton, Sharon; Azevedo, Liane B.; Olajide, Joan; De Brún, Caroline; Waller, Gillian; Whittaker, Vicki; Sharp, Tracey; Lean, Mike; Hankey, Catherine; Ells, Louisa. Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults (PDF). JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. February 2018, 16 (2): 507–547. doi:10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-003248. 
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Longo, Valter D; Mattson, Mark P. Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Cell Metabolism. 2014, 19 (2): 181–92. PMC 3946160. PMID 24440038. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.008. 
  17. ^ Anton, Stephen D.; Moehl, Keelin; Donahoo, William T.; Marosi, Krisztina; Lee, Stephanie A.; Mainous, Arch G.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Mattson, Mark P. Flipping the Metabolic Switch: Understanding and Applying the Health Benefits of Fasting. Obesity. February 2018, 26 (2): 254–268. PMC 5783752. PMID 9086496. doi:10.1002/oby.22065. 
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 Almeneessier, Aljohara S.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; BaHammam, Ahmed S. Intermittent Fasting, Insufficient Sleep, and Circadian Rhythm: Interaction and Effects on the Cardiometabolic System. Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 2018-07-19. doi:10.1007/s40675-018-0124-5. 
  19. ^ Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults. Sports Medicine. 2015-10-05, 46 (1): 35–47. PMID 26438184. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0408-6. 
  20. ^ Réseau NACRe - Réseau National Alimentation Cancer Recherche - Rapport NACRe jeûne regimes restrictifs cancer 2017. www6.inra.fr. November 2017 [2018-09-19] (法语).