间隔重复

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间隔反复Spaced repetition)是一种利用心理学间隔效应,通过不断复习所学内容并逐步增加两次复习间的时间间隔来提升效率的学习技巧。[1]

虽然间隔反复适用于诸多情境,但是这一技巧最常用于学习者需要牢固记忆大量知识的情景。因此,这一技巧非常适用于外语词汇的学习,尤其是在目标语言的基础词汇数量很大的时候。

研究和应用[编辑]

Video explanation


间隔反复可以用于改善学习的观点最初是由塞西尔·阿莱克·梅斯Cecil Alec Mace)教授于1932年在学习心理学Learning Psychology)一书中提出的:“也许最重要的发现是那些有关于学习时间分布的结果......对知识的复习和回顾应该反复多次,并且逐渐增加时间间隔,比如一天,两天,四天,八天等等。”[2]

1939年,H.F.Spitzer在爱荷华州对3600名六年级学生进行了一项实验,验证了间隔反复方法的效果。这一早期工作一直未引起关注,直到20世纪60年代,认知心理学家Melton[3],Landauer以及Bjork[4]再次研究了间隔时间对于复习效果的影响。大概在同一时间,罗皮姆斯勒语言课程(Pimsleur Language Programs)率先决定将间隔反复理论应用于语言学习。1973年,瑟巴斯坦·莱特纳Sebastian Leitner)发明了他的"莱特纳系统"(Leitner System)——一种基于抽认卡Flash Card)的全功能间隔重复学习系统。


随着20世纪80年代个人计算机的普及,基于间隔反复方法的软件被广泛应用于计算机辅助语言学习computer-assisted language learning)。通过软件的自动发放和统计,学习者可以通过间隔反复的方法辨认数以千计的抽认卡。[5] 为了使用户达到目标水平(例如,在任何给定时间点正确辨认90%的卡片),软件会调整重复的时间间隔。难以辨认的词汇经常出现,并且简单词汇出现频率较低,其词汇难度由软件根据用户的辨认正确率确定。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ "Human Memory: Theory and Practice", Alan D. Baddeley, 1997
  2. ^ Mace, C. A. Psychology of Study. 1932: ?. 
  3. ^ Melton, A. W. (1970). The situation with respect to the spacing of repetitions and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 596–606.
  4. ^ Landauer, T. K., & Bjork, R. A. (1978). Optimum rehearsal patterns and name learning. In M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (pp. 625–632). London: Academic Press.
  5. ^ See #Software

参见[编辑]

  • Caple, C. (1996). "The Effects of Spaced Practice and Spaced Review on Recall and Retention Using Computer Assisted Instruction". Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education, North Carolina State University.[1]
  • de Boer, V. (2003, August). "Optimal Learning and the Spacing Effect: Theory, Application and Experiments based on the Memory Chain Model". Artificial Intelligence Master's Thesis for Computational Psychology, University of Amsterdam.[2]
  • Dempster, F. N. (1988). "The Spacing Effect: A Case Study in the Failure to Apply the Results of Psychological Research". American Psychologist, 43(8), 627-634.
  • Greene R. L. (2008). Repetition and spacing effects. In Roediger H. L. III (Ed.), Learning and memory: A comprehensive reference. Vol. 2: Cognitive psychology of memory (pp. 65–78). Oxford: Elsevier.
  • The Guardian (2016). "Spaced Repetition: A hack to make your brain learn more information". [3]
  • Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2007). "Expanding Retrieval Practice Promotes Short-Term Retention, but Equally Spaced Retrieval Enhances Long-Term Retention". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, * Memory, and Cognition, 33(4), 704-719.[4]
  • Kerfoot, B. P.; Baker, H. E.; Koch, M. O.; Connelly, D.; Joseph, D. B.; Ritchey, M. L. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Spaced Education to Urology Residents in the United States and Canada. The Journal of Urology. 2007, 177 (4): 1481–1487. PMID 17382760. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2006.11.074. 
  • Pavlik, P. I. (2005). The Microeconomics of Learning: Optimizing Paired-Associate Memory. PhD, Carnegie Mellon.
  • Pavlik, P. I.; Anderson, J. R. Using a model to compute the optimal schedule of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2008, 14 (2): 101–117. PMID 18590367. doi:10.1037/1076-898X.14.2.101. 
  • Dr Piotr Wozniak. Effective learning: Twenty rules of formulating knowledge. Feb 1999.  — advice on making flashcards for spaced repetition.